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当前位置:宁夏11选五>历年真题>考研英语2历年真题
考研英语2历年真题

来源:宁夏11选五 宁夏11选五 发布时间:2017-06-27 16:23:08 作者:danieltamayo.com15

2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)

真题+答案

  (注:以下选项标红加粗为正确答案)

Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Happy people work differently. They're more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence 1 firms work, too.

  Companies located in place with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper. 2 , firms in happy places spend more on R&D(research and development).That's because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investment for the future.

  The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would 5 the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.

  7 enough, firms' investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8. But it is really happiness that's linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researches controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest like size, industry , and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was 11 to live in, like growth in wages or population. They link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things.

  The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors 13 to 'less confined decision making process' and the possible presence of younger and less 14 managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.'' The relationship was 15 stronger in places where happiness was spread more 16. Firms seem to invest more in places.

  17 this doesn't prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least 18 at that possibility. It's not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19 how executives think about the future. It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward -thinking and creative and 20 R&D more than the average,' said one researcher.

  1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when

  2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion

  3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary

  4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism

  5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change

  6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed

  7. [A] sure [B] odd [C] unfortunate [D] often

  8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered

  9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize

  10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods

  11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable

  12. [A] resumed [B] held [C] emerged [D] broke

  13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D] compare

  14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D] experienced

  15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never

  16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally

  17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since

  18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes

  19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share

  20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send act

Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  It's true that high-school coding classes aren't essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon's School of Computer Science.

  However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it's not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers - but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It's not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.

  Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.

  The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that's become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but 'we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in,' said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.

  The students in the Flatiron class probably won't drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the 'Ruby on Rails' language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn - how to think logically through a problem and organize the results - apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.

  Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes -for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want -the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that -the better.

  21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______

  [A] complete future job training

  [B] remodel the way of thinking

  [C] formulate logical hypotheses

  [D] perfect artwork production

  22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________

  [A] experience

  [B] interest

  [C] career prospects

  [D] academic backgrounds

  23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________

  [A] help students learn other computer languages

  [B] have to be upgraded when new technologies come

  [C] need improving when students look for jobs

  [D] enable students to make big quick money

  24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______

  [A] bring forth innovative computer technologies

  [B] stay longer in the information technology industry

  [C] become better prepared for the digitalized world

  [D] compete with a future army of programmers

  25.The word 'coax'(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________

  [A] persuade

  [B] frighten

  [C] misguide

  [D] challenge

Text 2

  Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands-once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.

  The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened .'The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ,' said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as 'endangered,' a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the' threatened' tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.

  Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let 'states' remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species,' Ashe said.

  Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn't go far enough. 'The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, ' says biologist Jay Lininger.

  26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.

  [A]its drastically decreased population

  [B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage

  [C]a desperate appeal from some biologists

  [D]the insistence of private landowners

  27.The 'threatened' tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.

  [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure

  [B]would involve fewer agencies in action

  [C]granted less federal regulatory power

  [D]went against conservation policies

  28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.

  [A]agree to pay a sum for compensation

  [B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat

  [C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job

  [D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations

  29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.

  [A]the federal government

  [B]the wildlife agencies

  [C]the landowners

  [D]the states

  30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.

  [A]industry groups

  [B]the win-win rhetoric

  [C]environmental groups

  [D]the plan under challenge

Text 3

  That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.

  What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read: 'Give up TV' or 'Carry a book with you at all times.' But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, 'is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption.' Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.

  In fact, 'becoming more efficient' is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. 'The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,' writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and 'we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them.' No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.

  So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us 'step outside time's flow' into 'soul time.' You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. 'Carry a book with you at all times' can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're 'making time to read,' but just reading, and making time for everything else.

  31. The usual time-management techniques don't work because .

  [A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

  [B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading

  [C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them

  [D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

  32. The 'empty bottles' metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .

  [A] update their to-do lists

  [B] make passing time fulfilling

  [C] carry their plans through

  [D] pursue carefree reading

  33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .

  [A] encourage the efficiency mind-set

  [B] develop online reading habits

  [C] promote ritualistic reading

  [D] achieve immersive reading

  34. 'Carry a book with you at all times' can work if .

  [A] reading becomes your primary business of the day

  [B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

  [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading

  [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business

  35. The best title for this text could be .

  [A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading

  [B] How to Find Time to Read

  [C] How to Set Reading Goals

  [D] How to Read Extensively

Text 4

  Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.

  Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.

  Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.

  From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.

  Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those 'just getting started in life' face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.

  Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.' I can't afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen.' Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young.'I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn't have college degrees,'Schneider said.'I don't think people are capable of that anymore. '

  36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is .

  [A] trying out different lifestyles

  [B] having a family with children

  [C] working beyond retirement age

  [D] setting up a profitable business

  37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to .

  [A] favor a slower life pace

  [B] hold an occupation longer

  [C] attach importance to pre-marital finance

  [D] give priority to childcare outside the home

  38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will .

  [A] become increasingly clear

  [B] focus on materialistic issues

  [C] depend largely on political preferences

  [D] reach almost all aspects of American life

  39. Both young and old agree that .

  [A] good-paying jobs are less available

  [B] the old made more life achievements

  [C] housing loans today are easy to obtain

  [D] getting established is harder for the young

  40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?

  [A] He found a dream job after graduating from college

  [B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success

  [C] His parents' good life has little to do with a college degree

  [D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging

Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Be silly

  [B] Have fun

  [C] Ask for help

  [D] Express your emotions.

  [E] Don't overthink it

  [F] Be easily pleased

  [G] Notice things

  Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age.

  (1) As adults, it seems that we're constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.

  41_____ [D] Express your emotions

  (2) What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we feel appropriately and then-again, like children-move on.

  42______[F] Be easily pleased

  A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.

  43_______[A] Be silly

  Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels.

  44______ [B] Have fun

  The problem with being a grownup is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)-it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.

  45______ [E] Don't overthink it

  Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said: 'Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness.' And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.

Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally-which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.

  【参考译文

  超市旨在吸引顾客在自己店内停留尽量长的时间。原因很简单:顾客在店里停留的时间越长,看到的商品就会越多;而看到的商品越多,你就会买的越多。天津11选5超市有大量商品。根据食品营销研究院所说,普通超市大概有44000种不同的商品;很多超市更是会比普通超市多上万种商品。众多选择足以让顾客面临各种信息,不堪重负。根据脑部扫描实验,需要做这么多的决定很快就会使我们难以承受。大约购物40分钟以后,大部分顾客就无法试图做出理性的选择,而会冲动购物--此时,在购物车里,我们已经装了一半根本没想买的东西。

Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions:

  Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to

  1) thank him, and

  2) give you advice

  You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  【参考范文

  Dear Jack,

  Your letter of congratulations was received. Thank you for your nice words on my winning the contest. In the letter, you asked me about the skills to do translation, so the following are my advice for you.

  Firstly, you should analyze the sentence structure, thus catching the meaning of the sentence. Secondly, find the proper words to translate the meaning of the source language into the target language. Thirdly, revise your translation at least three times to check if there are any mistranslations or missed meanings.

  I hope my advice helpful. Wish to see you soon.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  【参考范文

  Portrayed in the above pie chart is a survey of college students' purposes of traveling. The number of students who take traveling as a chance to see beautiful scenes accounts for 37%, while students who would like to travel to relieve pressure from study take up 35 %.

  There are several reasons behind the trend revealed in the above chart. To begin with, as the present society is filled with fierce competition, most college students nowadays are under great pressure to stand out among others or to lunch a decent job after graduation. Therefore, they tend to choose traveling as an outlet to relieve their stress. Secondly, with the fast advancement of the living standards of Chinese families, traveling is increasingly affordable to most college students. For this reason, students prefer to travel to see different views to enjoy themselves or to make some friends.

  From my perspective, no matter what reason it is for, traveling is of great benefit for students to acquire a broader perspective of life. If time permits, we college students should go to see the outside world more often.

2015年考研英语二真题答案(完整版)

 Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following textChoose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and markABC or D on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)

  In our contemporary culturethe prospect of communicating with-or even looking at-a stranger is virtually unbearable Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phoneseven without a  1   underground

  It's a sad reality-our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings-because there's 2   to be gained from talking to the strange r standing by you. But you wouldn't know it,  3  into your phone. This universal armor sends the  4  'Please don't approach me.'

  What is it that makes us feel we need to hide  5  our screens?

  One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach We fear rejectionor that our innocent social advances will be  6  as'creep,'We fear we'II be  7  We fear we'II be disruptive Strangers are inherently  8  to usso we are more likely to feel  9  when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances To avoid this anxiety, we   10  to our phones.'Phones become our security blanket'Wortmann says.'They are our happy

  glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more  11  .'

  But once we rip off the bandaidtuck our smartphones in our pockets and look upit doesn't 12   so bad. In one 2011 experimentbehavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a  13  . They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow  14  . 'When Dr.Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to  15  how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their  16  would be more pleasant if they sat on their own,' the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they  17  with

  the experiment, 'not a single person reported having been snubbed.'

  18  , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense,  19  human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that   20  : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected.

  1. [A] ticket [B] permit [C]signall [D] record

  2. [A] nothing [B] link           [C]another            [D] much

  3. [A] beaten [B] guided         [C]plugged           [D] brought

  4. [A] message [B] cede            [C]notice [D] sign

  5. [A] under [B] beyond       [C] behind [D] from

  6. [A] misinterprete [B] misapplied     [C] misadjusted       [D] mismatched

  7. [A] fired  [B] judged         [C] replaced          [D] delayed

  8. [A] unreasonable [B] ungreatful     [C] unconventional    [D] unfamiliar

  9. [A] comfortable  [B] anxious      [C] confident         [D] angry

  10. [A] attend   [B] point [C] take [D] turn

  11. [A] dangerous [B] mysterious  [C] violent [D] boring

  12. [A] hurt [B] resis [C] bend  [D] decay

  13. [A] lecture [B] conversation    [C] debate         [D] negotiation

  14. [A] trainees [B] employees      [C] researchers  [D] passengers

  15. [A] reveal [B] choose         [C] predictl  [D] design

  16. [A] voyage   [B] flight [C] walk [D] ride

  17. [A] went through [B] did away  [C] caught up       [D] put up

  18. [A] In turn [B] In particular    [C]In fact          [D] In consequence

  19. [A] unless [B] since [C] if [D] whereas

  20. [A] funny    [B] simple [C] Iogical  [D] rare

  答案:

  1. signal   2. Much  3. plugged   4. message   5. behind

  6. misinterpreted   7. judged   8. unfamiliar   9. anxious   10. turn

  11. dangerous   12. hurt    13. Conversation  14. passengers

  15. predict    16. ride    17. went through   18. in fact

  19. since     20. simple

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Text 1

  A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys. People art actually more stressed at home than at work. Researchers measured people's cortntlol. Which is it at stress marker. While they were at work and while they were at home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge.

  'Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as men have lower levels of stress at work than at home,' writes one of the researchers. Sarah Damaske, In fact women say they feel better at work. She notes. 'it is men not women. Who report being bappicr at home than at work,' Another surprise is that the findings hold true for both those with childrcn and without, but more so for nonparents. This is why pcoplc who work outside the home have better health.

  What the study doesn't measure is whether people are still doing work when they' re at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the workplace in making adjustments for working women, it' s not surprising that women are more stressed at home.

  But it's not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what they're supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola.

  On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most of them. Your home colleagues-your family-have no clear rewards for their labor; they need to be talked into it, or if they' re teenagers, threatened with complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, they' re your family. You cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home.

  So it's not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are the tasks apparently infinite, the co-workers are much harder to motivate.

  21.According to Pa ragraph 1most previous su rveys found that home___________

  [A]was an un realistic place for relaxation

  [B]generated more stress than the workplace

  [C]was an ideal place for stress measurement

  [D]offered greater relaxation than the workplace

  22.According to Damaskewho are likely to be the happiest at home?

  [A]Working mothers

  [B]Childless husbands

  [C] Childless wives

  [D]Working fathers

  23 The blurring of working women's roles refers to the fact thay___________

  [A]they are both bread winners and housewives

  [B]their home is also a place for kicking back

  [C]there is often much housework left behind

  [D]it is difficult for them to leave their office

  24.The word'moola'(Line 4Para 4)most probably means___________

  [A]energy

  [B]skills

  [C]earnings

  [D]nutrition

  25.The home front differs from the workplace in that_____________

  [A]home is hardly a cozier working environment

  [B]division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut

  [C]household tasks are generally more motivating

  [D]family labor is often adequately rewarded

  答案:

  21.D offered greater relaxation than the workplace

  22.B childless husbands

  23.A they are both bread winners and housewives

  24.C earnings

  25.B division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut

 Text 2

  For years, studies have found that first-generation college students-those who do not have a parent with a college degree-lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. This has created 'a paradox' in that recruiting first-generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has 'continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close' achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Sciense.

  But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach(which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap(measured by such factors as grades)between first-generation and other students.

  The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findins are based on a study involving 147 students(who completed the project)at an unnamed private unive rsityFirst generation was defined as not having a parent with a fou r-year college degree Most of the first-generation students(59.1 percent) were recipients of Pell Grantsa federal g rant for undergraduates with financial needwhile this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree

  Their thesis-that a relatively modest inte rvention could have a big impact-was based on the view that first-gene ration students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students They cite past resea rch by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be na rrowed to close the achievement gap.

  Many first-gene ration students'struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher educationlearn the'rules of the game'and take advantage of college resou rces,' they write And this becomes more of a problem when collages don't talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students' educational expe riencemany first-gene ration students lack sight about why they a re struggling and do not unde rstand how students' like them can improve

  26. Recruiting more first-generation students has

  [A]reduced their d ropout rates

  [B]narrowed the achievement gao

  [C] missed its original pu rpose

  [D]depressed college students

  27 The author of the research article are optimistic because

  [A]the problem is solvable

  [B]their approach is costless

  [q the recruiting rate has increased

  [D]their finding appeal to students

  28 The study suggests that most first-gene ration students

  [A]study at private universities

  [B]are from single-pa rent families

  [q are in need of financial support

  [D]have failed their collage

  29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students

  [A]a re actually indifferent to the achievement gap

  [B]can have a potential influence on othe r students

  [C] may lack opportunities to apply for resea rch projects

  [D]are inexperienced in handling their issues at college

  30.We mayinfer from the last paragraph that--

  [A]universities often r~ect the culture of the middle-class

  [B]students are usually to blame for their lack of resources

  [C]social class g reatly helps en rich educational experiences

  [D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question

  答案:

  26.C missed its original purpose

  27.A the problem is solvable

  28.C are in need of financial support

  29.D are inexperienced in handling issues at college

  30.D colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question

  Text3

  Even in traditional offices'the lingua franca of corporate America has gottenmuch more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago' said Ha rva rd Business School professor Nancy Koehn She sta rted spinning off examples.'If you and I pa rachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990we would see much less frequent use of terms like Journey, mission,passion. There were goalsthere were strategiesthere were objectivesbut we didn't talk about energywe didn't talk about passion.'

  Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabula ry is very 'team'-oriented-and not by coincidence.'Let's not forget sDorts-in male-dominated corporate Americait's still a big deal. It's not explicitly consciousit's the idea that I'm a coachand you're my teamand we're in this togethec. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companiesbut most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win'.

 These terms a re also intended to infuse work with meaning-andas Khu rana points outincrease allegiance to the firm.'You have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit organizations and religious organizationsTerms like visionvaluespassionand purpose'saidKhurana

  This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance The 'mommy wars' of the 1990s a re still going on today, prompting arguments about whywomen still can'thave it all and books like Sheryl Sandberg's Lean Inwhose title has become abuzzword in its own right. Terms like unplugofflinelife-hackbandwidthandcapacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home But ifyour work is your 'passion,' you'II be more likely to devote yourself to iteven ifthat means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed

  But this seems to be the irony of office speakEveryone makes fun of itbutmanage rs love itcompanies depend on itand regular people willingly absorb itAs Nunberg said'You can get people to think it's nonsense at the same timethat you buy into it.' In a workplace that's fundamentally indiffe rent to your lifeand its meaning office speak can help you figu re out how you relate to yourwork-and how your work defines who you are

  31. According to Nancy Koehn, office language has become________

  [A]more e motional

  [B]more objective

  [C]less energetic

  [D]less energetic

  [E]less strategic

  32.'team'-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to________

  [A]historical incidents

  [B]gender difference

  [C]sports culture

  [D]athletic executives

  33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to________

  [A]revive historical terms

  [B]promote company image

  [C]foster corporate cooperation

  [D]strengthen employee loyalty

  34.It can be inferred that Lean In_________

  [A]voices for working women

  [B]appeals to passionate workaholics

  [C]triggers dcbates among mommies

  [D]praises motivated employees

  35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak?

  [A]Managers admire it but avoid it

  [B]Linguists believe it to be nonsense

  [C]Companies find it to be fundamental

  [D]Regular people mock it but accept it

  答案:

  31.A more emotional

  32.C sports culture

  33.D strengthen employee loyalty

  34.A voices for working women

  35.C companies find it to be fundamental

  Text 4

  Many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the Labor Department reporled for Jure, along with the drop in the unemployment take to 6 J percent. at good news. And they were right. For now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. We still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace.

  However there is another important part of the jobs picture that was targely ovedookcd. There was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time. This figure is now 830,0004,4 percentabove its year ago level.

  Before explaining the connection to the Obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. Many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. They take part-time work because this is all they can get. An increase in involuntary part-time work is evidence of weakness in the labor market and it means that many people will be having a very hard time making ends meet.

  There was an increase in involuntary part-time in June, but the general direction has been down. Involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9 percent)from its year ago level.

  We know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. The survey used by the Labor Department asks people if they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. If the answer is 'yes.'they are classified as working part-time. The survey then asks whether they worked less than 35 hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice. They are only elassified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a week.

  The issue of voluntary part-time relates to Obamacare becanse one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. For many people, especially those with serious health conditions or family members with serious health conditions, before Obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance.

  However, Obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through Medicaid or the exchanges. These are people who may previously have felt the need to get a full-time job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. With Obamacare there is no longer a link between employment and insurance.

36. Which part of the jobs picture was neglected?

  A. The prospect of a thriving job market.

  B. The increase of voluntary part-time jobs.

  C. The possibility of full employment.

  D. The acceleration of job creation.

  37. Many people work part-time because they

  A. prefer part-time jobs to full-time jobs

  B. feel that is enough to make ends meet

  C. cannot get their hands on full-time jobs

  D. haven' t seen the weakness of the market

  38. Involuntary part-time employment in the US

  A. is harder to acquire than one year ago

  B. shows a general tendency of decline

  C. satisfies the real need of the jobless

  D. is lower than before the recession

  39. It can be learned that with Obamacare, .

  A. it is no longer easy for part-timers to get insurance

  B. employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance

  C. it is still challenging to get insurance for family members

  D. full-time employment is still essential for insurance

  40. The text mainly discusses.

  A. employment in the US

  B. part-timer classification

  C. insurance through Medicaid

  D. Obamacare's trouble

  答案:

  36.B  the increase of voluntary part-time jobs

  37.C  cannot get their hands on full-time jobs

  38.B  shows a general tendency of decline

  39.B  employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance

  40.A  employment in the US

  Some Old Truths to Help You Overcorne Toucgh Times

  Uefortunately, life is not a bed of roses, We are going through life facing sad experiences. Moreover, we are grieving various kinds of loss: a friendship, a rontantic relatlonshlp of a house. Hard times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time,but you should remember that they won't last forever.

  When our time of mourning is over, we press forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life. Furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventally move as toward future opportunities for growth and happiness. I want to share these old truths I've learned along the way.

  41.

  Fear is both useful and harmful. This normal human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to deal with it. Unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of exaggerating fears. My favorite actor will smith once said, 'Fear is not real. It is a product of thoughts you create. Do not misunderstand me. Danger is very real. But fear is a choice.' I do completely agree that fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination.

  42 .

  If you are ??? by ???     and

  43. .

  Sometimes it is casy to feel bad because you are going through tough times. You can be easily caught up by life problems that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. Only strong people prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about something.

  44..

  No matter how isolated you might feel and how serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone. Try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and nearest people, You may have a circle of friends who provide constant good humor, help and companionship. If you have no friends or relatives. Try to participate in several online communities, full of people who are always willing to share advice and cncouragement.

  45 .

  Today many people find it difficult to trust their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external sources. This way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of managing your of own life. When you are struggling to achieve something important you should believe in yourself  and be sure that your decision is the best. You live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your own choices.

  答案:

  41.D  Most of your fears are unreal

  42.E  Think about the resent moment

  43.G  There are many things to be grateful for

  44.A  you are not alone

  45.C  Pave your own unique path

  Section Ⅲ Translation

  46. Directions:

  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  Think about driving a route that's very familiar. It could be your commute to work, a trip into town or the way home. Whichever it is, you know every twist and turn like the back of your hand. On these sorts of trips it's easy tolose concentration on the driving and pay little attention to the passing scenery. The consequence is that you perceive that the trip has taken less time than it actually has.

  This is the well-travelled road effect: people tend to underestimate the time it takes to travel a familiar route.

  The effect is caused by the way we allocate our attention. When we travel down a well-known route, because we don't have to concentrate much, time seems to flow more quickly. And afterwards, when we come to think back on it, we can't remember the journey well because we didn't pay much attention to it. So we assume it wasshorter.

  参考译文:

天津11选5  想想看在一条非常熟悉的路上驾驶的感觉,这可能发生在上班,进城或回家的路上。无论如何,你会熟悉路上的每一个迂回曲折。在这类旅行中,我们很容易会分散注意力并且不太关注路边的风景。天津11选5结果就是你误以为旅途比实际所用的时间要少。

  这是美妙的旅程所产生的效果:人们往往会低估在熟悉的旅程中所用掉的时间。

  我们分散注意力的方式会导致这种结果。当我们在知名的路途中行驶时,我们不必过于集中精力,时间似乎过得飞快。随后,当我们回想整个过程时,由于没有特别留神,会变得印象模糊。此时,我们似乎会觉得这段旅程会更短些。

 Section Ⅳ Writing

  Part A

  47.Direerions:

  Suppose your university is going to host a summer camp for high school students. Write a notice to

  1)briefly introduce the camp activities, and

  2)call for volunteers.

  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not use your name or the name of your university.

  Do not write your address.(10 points)

  范文:

  Notice

  The Students' Union are arranging for a summer camp for high school students to broaden their horizon and experience different life.As there are some foreign students,who will also attend it,some volunteers are needed.The details are as follows.

  To begin with,the summer camp is scheduled on July 15th and will end on July 22nd.That is to say,it will last for about one week and the theme is 'Loving your country,Loving the world'.What is more,different kinds of activities are included during the camp,like knowledge competition, patriotic songs contest, drama contest and so on.Last but not least,volunteers should be those who are good at communicating with foreigners and also take an active part in activities.

  If you have any questions,please do not hesitate to contact us at 5678 soon.

  Students' Union

  Part B

  48.Directions:

  Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, your should

  1)interpret the chart, and

  2)give your comment.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

  范文:

  The pie chart provides some interesting data regarding the family expense of urban residents during Spring Festival in our country. As is shown above, the family expense during the holiday is mainly used for gifts, accounting 40 percent of the whole expense.

  Obviously, such statistics regarding family expenses reflects the lifestyles of the average urban family in China. To begin with, the most expense used for buying presents suggests that Chinese people are more likely to enjoy a lifestyle of communication during holidays, which may add more flavor to their routine life. What's more, it is interesting to note that urban residents attach importance to giving others gifts, thereby devoting much of the income to gifts for friends, relatives and family members. In addition, there is no denying in saying that the major factor responsible for the phenomenon is that urban people posses more money available for gifts thanks to the growth of urban economy.

  Taking above-mentioned analysisinto account, we can naturally arrive at the conclusion: as the society further develops, the trend mirrored by the table is bound to continue for a couple of years in the forthcoming future.

2014年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语()试题

Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.

  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.

  While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.

  Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

  1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured

  2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome

  3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore

  4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example

  5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern

  6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of

  7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies

  8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part

  9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward

  10. [A] so [B] unlike [C] since [D] unless

  11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste

  12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay

  13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant

  14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency

  15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored

  16. [A] [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated

  17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only

  18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded

  19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies

  20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.

  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.

  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most 'happiness bang for your buck.' It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.

  Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent

  21.According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?

  [A]A big house

  [B]A special tour

  [C]A stylish car

  [D]A rich meal

  22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is

  [A]critical

  [B]supportive

  [C]sympathetic

  [D]ambiguous

  23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that

  [A]consumers are sometimes irrational

  [B]popularity usually comes after quality

  [C]marketing tricks are after effective

  [D]rarity generally increases pleasure

  24.According to the last paragraph,Happy Money

  [A]has left much room for readers’criticism

  [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  [C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us

  [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement

  25.This text mainly discusses how to

  [A]balance feeling good and spending money

  [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

  [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent

  [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries

  Text 2

  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.

  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.

  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.

  26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.

  [A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect

  [C] our need for leadership is unnatural

  [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

  27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______

  [A] rapid watching

  [B] conscious choice

  [C] intuitive response

  [D] automatic self-defence

  28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______

  [A] underestimate their insecurities

  [B] believe in their attractiveness

  [C] cover up their depressions

  [D] oversimplify their illusions

  29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.

  [A]instinctively

  [B]occasionally

  [C]particularly

  [D]aggressively

  30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can _____.

  [A]present their dishonest profiles

  [B]define their traditional life styles

  [C]share their intellectual pursuits

  [D]withhold their unflattering sides

  Text 4

  When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.

  Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.

  Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.

  The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.

  There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.

  Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.

  But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.

  36. The author believes that the housing sector__

  [A] has attracted much attention

  [B] involves certain political factors

  [C] shoulders too much responsibility

  [D] has lost its real value in economy

  37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__

  [A] increased its home supply

  [B] offered spending opportunities

  [C] suffered government biases

  [D] disappointed the government

  38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______.

  [A] allow greater government debt for housing

  [B] stop local authorities from building homes

  [C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt

  [D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast

  39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.

  [A]lower the costs of registered providers

  [B]lessen the impact of government interference

  [C]contribute to funding new developments

  [D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities

  40.The author believes that after 2015,the government may______.

  [A]implement more policies to support housing

  [B]review the need for large-scale public grants

  [C]renew the affordable housing grants programme

  [D]stop generous funding to the housing sector

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.

  Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to

  1)tell him about your living habits, and

  2)ask for advice about living there.

  You should write about 100 words on answer sheet.

  Do not use your own name.

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  You should

  interpret the chart, and

  give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)

http://img.kuakao.com/upload/20140105/49851388886170447.jpg

2014年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题解析

  Section I Use of English

  1、【答案】B concluded

  【解析】 题干中,一系列的研究已经_____,事实上,正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。天津11选5根据句义,后面的部分实际上是研究的结论,因此concluded 符合题意,其他选项denied(否认)与意义相反,doubled(翻倍)与题意较远,ensured(确保)不符合题意,因为研究不能确保后面的事 实,只能得出后面的事实作为结论。所以正确答案为B。

  2、【答案】A protective

  【解析】 题干中,对于某些健康情况,超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论,超重能减少罹患疾病的风险,说明超重具有一定的保护作用。天津11选5Dangerous 和文章意思相反,sufficient表示充足,troublesome表示有麻烦,不符合题意,所以正确答案为A。

  3、【答案】C likewise

  【解析】第三句话中,较重的女人患缺钙的比例低于较瘦的女人。_____,在老年人中,一定程度上超重……。天津11选5需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词 语。A选项instead表示逆接的句意关系,B选项however也表示逆接,D选项therefore表示因此,只有C选项likewise意为同样 地;也,而且。天津11选5因此正确答案为C。

  4、【答案】A indicator

  【解析】本句话中,_____,一定程度上超重,经常是健康的_____。A选项,表示指示器,指标。B选项objective表示客观;C选 项origin表示来源,D选项example表示例子。根据前面的文章内容,已经明确指出超重代表了健康,因此超重是健康的指标。因此正确答案为A。

  5、【答案】D concern

  【解析】本句话的句意是,需要更加_____是,很难对肥胖加以定义。A、impact(印象);B、relevance(相关性);C、 assistance(辅助);D、concern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康,但是又面临一个问题,到底如何去定义肥胖,因此需要更加关 注的是对肥的定义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确答案为D。

  6、【答案】A in terms of

  【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数,或称为BMI来定义。A、in terms of ,根据……,就……而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下, C、in favor of 表示赞成,以……来取代,D、in respect of,关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标,希望考生能够记住这一背景知识,方便日后做题。

  7、【答案】C equals

  【解析】本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方,这里是用文字叙述了BMI指数得出的方法,也就是一个数学公式,所以equal符合题 意。A measure(测量)、B determine表示确定;D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平方。

  8、【答案】C in turn

  【解析】本题题干中,肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。A、in essence(事实上、实际上); B、in contrast (相反地);C、in turn(依次); D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级,所以正确答案为C。

  9、【答案】D straightforward

  【解析】题干中,相比之下,这样的数字标准看起来_____,实际上不是的。A、complicated (复杂);B、conservative(保守)、C、variable(可变的);D、straightforward(直截了当);这里的数字标准指 的就是肥胖指数,肥胖指数分为三类,而且算法比较简单,所以A复杂不正确,B选项保守,用于描述一种数学公式,不恰当,一名患者或一名受试者的BMI一般 是确定的,因此可变的也不符合题意,D选项straightforward表示直截了当,符合题意,因此正确答案为D。

  10、【答案】B while

  【解析】本句中,一些人有很高的BMI,实际上身材正好,_____其他人有较低的BMI指数,可能_____。从前半句我们可以看出,有些人 的BMI指数很高,应该属于体重肥胖的人,事实上身材正好,这里说明的是反常的现象,后半句是其他人的BMI指数较低,而_____较差。A、so(所 以);B、while(而);C、since(因为);D、unless(除非)四个选项中只有while有转折的含义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确 答案为B。

  11、【答案】A shape

  【解析】本题可以简化为:Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor .不难看出,前后意义相反,且fit(体型健康)与in poor 对应,与之最相关是A shape(外形),故为正确答案。'精神'、'均衡'、'品味'都相差比较远,可以排除。

  12、【答案】B qualify

  【解析】本题顺应前文意义:有一些人体型很好,有些人体型体型肥胖。接下来举例说有些专业足球运动员 是肥胖的,'开始'不符;'处在'也不符合句意;'退休'内容无关;'被认为'符合句意,正确。

  13、【答案】C normal

  【解析】本句不难理解:有些人脂肪过高,但是BMI却 。所需词汇明显是正向的,排除A、B;D属中性,且不符合句意,C(正常的)契合,为正确答案。

  14、【答案】D tendency

  【解析】本题解题关键是后半句:to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖),作为划线部分的后置定语,将四个选项'选择''理由''机会''倾向'代入划线处,最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进 一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)。

  15、【答案】C pictured

  【解析】空格所在句提到了媒体,根据语境,上句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖,所以本句的意思应该是媒体污蔑肥胖,四个选项中,跟媒体相关系的词汇只有C picture 意思为刻画,描写,描述。

  16、【答案】D associated

  【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰,缺乏意志力,对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰,缺乏意志力和对成功的期望 值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现,分析四个选项,A. 与。。。相比;B 与。。。相结合;C. 和。。。和解;都不符合题意,只有D与。。。相联系,相关符合句意。

  17、【答案】A even

  【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重,而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本空格缺少一个副词,根据语境记忆常识,此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇,分析四个选项,只有A even 即使符合题意。

  18、【答案】D grounded

  【解析】根据语境,空前讲到对肥胖的负面态度,空后讲到对健康的关注,

  激发一批反肥胖的____。本句没有出现任何转折词,说明空前后所表达的意思是一致的,反对肥胖,是基于对健康的关注,分析四个选项,能够表达此意思的词汇,只有选项D grounded,意思是基于。

  19、【答案】D policies

  【解析】解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词汇,比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统中所出台的政策的问题,浏览四个选项,D选项policies 符合题意,直接入选。

  20、【答案】B against

  【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖,本句话属于细节的句子,用来支持这个主题,空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童 肥胖,甚至告诉奥兹博士,它代表了我们国家最大的安全威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对,反抗的意思,纵观四个选项,只有B against 符合题意。

Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21、【答案】B A special tour

  【解析】细节题。答案定位在第二段的'it is far better to spend money on experiences…like interesting trips…',意思是'花钱消费在经历方面更好……,比如说有趣的旅行……',由此可以得知答案是B选项'一场特别的旅行'

  22、【答案】A critical

  【解析】观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的'something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it',意思是'普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视,并且看电视几乎不可能更愉快',因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是A选项'批判的'

  23、【答案】D rarity generally increases pleasure

  【解析】观点例证题。答案定位在第三段,文章中提到Mc Rib这个例子,用这个例子证明的论点是'luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly',大意是'有节制地消费奢侈品最令人愉悦'D选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。

  24、【答案】B may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  【解析】细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句'most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent',大意是'大多数人看完这本书后,认为物有所值',因此可以推知B选项是正确答案。

  25、【答案】A balance feeling good and spending money

  【解析】主旨题。纵观全文可知,全文主要谈论花钱消费和心情愉悦之间的关系,因此答案定位在A选项。

  Text 2

  26、【答案】A our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  【解析】题目问 '根据第一段,社会心理学家发现了什么?'对应于文章第一 段第三句'社会心理学家对所谓的高于均数效应或者虚幻的优越感进行大量的研究,发现我们中70%的人认为自己的领导力在平均水平之上……—这些数 据明显都是不可能的。'由此可知,我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  27、【答案】C intuitive response

  【解析】题目问'视觉识别被认为是人们的什么?'对应于文章第三段第三句'视觉识别是自动的心理过程,这个过程依靠直觉快速发生,且并不是故意的。'由此可知,视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故答案为[C] intuitive response

  28、【答案】B believe in their attractiveness

  【解析】题目问'Epley发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样'。对应到第四段,第二句讲到'没有证据显示那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为了掩饰自 己的不安全,接着讲到:事实上,那些认为自己的形象高于吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人,故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness

  29、【答案】[A] instinctively

  【解析】题目问'最接近viscerally的意思的是?'。对应到第五段,viscerally所在句讲到'许多人讨厌照片中的自己,从某种 层面上说,他们甚至不承认照片中的人是他们自己。'而下文又讲到facebook是自我拔高者的天堂,在那里人们可以分享最满意的的照片。'由此可 知,viscerally在本句中是'本质上地'意思,故答案为[A] instinctively

  30、【答案】[D]withhold their unflattering sides

  【解析】题干问'我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂,是因为人们可以做什么?'对应于文章最后一段的第二 句,该句讲到'在脸书(facebook)中,人们可以分享最满意的照片。'下文接着讲到'不是人们不诚实,而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。'故答案为 [D]withhold their unflattering sides

  Text 4

  36、【答案】[B] involves certain political factors

  【解析】 根据本题题干中的关键词housing sector可以对应到文章的第二段, 中间说的很多,我们注意到最后有but出现,最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点,另外这里用了the most significant 最高级,所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因,politically charged和选项Bpolitical factors有对应关系,故选B involves certain political factors

  A项的吸引注意没有提及,C项的承担太多责任,原文说的shoulder the blameD项说的丧失价值,原文说的是不善于表明真正价值,两者不一致,故排除。

  37、【答案】[C] suffered government biases

  【解析】经济适用房曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一边并且采取一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。Suffered 是过去式,是对于原文history 的同义反复,biases 是对原文prejudices的同义反复。

  38、【答案】[A] allow greater government debt for housing

  【解析】根据人名George Osborne定位得知,此人将会让当地政府用来偿还建房借贷的限额变得更加宽松,并且在借贷限额放宽的情况下,将会另有60,000所房屋在未来的五年 中建立,并由此拉动国内生产总值的百分之零点六。因此A(允许更大的政府的建房借贷)是正确的,而B(禁止当地政府建房)C(准备减少建房借 贷)D(发布国内生产总值增长的预报)都与原文意思不符。

  39、【答案】[C] contribute to funding new developments

  【解析】推断题。根据文章题干定位到第五段,题干考察的是对稳定的租赁环境的理解。A项的意思是'减少注册供应者的成本',其中'成本一词'并 未在文中出现,属于无中生有。B项的意思是'减少政府接介入的影响',其中'政府介入'并未在文中出现,属于无中生有。B项的意思是'有助于为新发展提供 资金支持',其中'为新发展提供资金支持'对应文中的'fund new developments';C选项中的'contribute to'(意思是有助于)对英文中的have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响),符合正解的同义复现原则,所以是正确选项。

  40、【答案】[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector

  【解析】推断题。根据题干定位到最后一段第三行。考察的是2015年以后政府的可能性动作。A项的意思是'推行更多的政策来支持住房'与原文意 义相反。B项的意思是重新审视大规模公共拨款的需求,与原文倒数第二段意义相违背。C项的意思是更新可负担的住房拨款项目并没有提到renew一词。D项 的意思是停止对住房部门的大额资助,与原文的倒数第二句相匹配,故为正确选项。

 Section III Translation

  46

  【参考译文】

  大多数人愿意把乐观定义为无尽的欢乐,就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极心理学家所推荐的虚假快乐。哈佛大学的Tal Ben-Shahar教授说,健康的乐观主义,意味着要处于现实之中。Ben-Shahar看来,现实的乐观主义者,会尽最大努力做好一件事,而不是相信每件事都会有最好的结果。

   Ben-Shahar 会进行三种乐观方面的练习。比如说,当他进行了一次糟糕的演讲,感到心情郁闷的时候,他会告诉自己这是人之常情。他会提醒自己:并不是每一次演讲都可以获 得诺贝尔获,总会有一些演讲比其它演讲效果差。接着是重塑,他分析了这个效果不好的演讲,并且从那些起作用和不起作用的演讲中吸取教训为将来做准备。最 后,需要有这样一种观点,那就是承认,在广阔的生命当中,一次演讲根本算不上什么。

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions:

  Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student, write him an email to

  1) tell him about your living habits, and

  2) ask for advice about living there

  Dear John,

  I am Li Ming who will go to study in your university and live together with you in one department. Now I am writing this letter to tell you some of my habits and ask you for some suggestions to adapt myself there.

  To begin with, I usually get up early in the morning at six o’clock and then go out to do some exercise. To continue, I would like to spend my spare time in reading in the library. Meanwhile, I wonder if you could be so kind to offer me some proposals on how to get used to the life there.

  I am looking forward to seeing you soon and wish everything goes well.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Directions:

  Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  Writing B

  What is clearly presented in the above chart is the different numbers of urban residents and rural population among 1990,2000 and 2010.The number of urban residents climbed steadily from 300 million in 1990 to 660 million or so in 2010while rural population decreased slightly from about 820 million to 680 million or so in the same period.

  It is not difficult to come up with some possible factors accounting for this trend. On the one hand, with the rapid development of economy and society, people in mounting numbers crowd into cities in search of employment, a decent living and the excitement of urban life recently. On the other hand, the economy in the rural districts is comparative less developed and thus the opportunity to make money and pursue their future is as well lean. As a result, an increasing number of folks are trying to escape this destiny by flocking into the urban areas.

  Given the analyses above, I firmly believe that such established trend will surely continue for quite a while in the forthcoming years and due importance should be attached to this evident situation.

2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试

英语(二)试题

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best words for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.10 points

Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically.1, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been2for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very3of money itself,” only to 4itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so5in coming?

Although emoney might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work6the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very7to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the8form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they9receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to10. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of “float”—it takes several days11a check is cashed and funds are12from the issuers account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime.13electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may14security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information15there.

The fact that this is not an16occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and17from someone elses accounts. The18of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to19security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic20that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy.

1. A However

B Moreover

C Therefore

D Otherwise

2. A off

B back

C over

D around

3. A power

B concept

C history

D role

4. A reward

B resist

C resume

D reverse

5. A silent

B sudden

C slow

D steady

6. A for

B against

C with

D on

7. A imaginative

B expensive

C sensitive

D productive

8. A similar

B original

C temporary

D dominant

9. A collect

B provide

C copy

D print

10. A give up

B take over

C bring back

D pass down

11. A before

B after

C since

D when

12. A kept

B borrowed

C released

D withdrawn

13. A Unless

B Until

C Because

D Though

14. A hide

B express

C raise

Dease

15. A analyzed

B shared

C stored

D displayed

16. A unsafe

B unnatural

C uncommon

D unclear

17. A steal

B choose

C benefit

D return

18. A consideration

Bprevention

Cmanipulation

Djustification

19. Acope with

Bfight against

Cadapt to

Dcall for

20. Achunk

Bchip

Cpath

Dtrail

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.40 points

Text 1

In an essay entitled “Making It in America,” the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton country about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill has only two employees today, “a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”

Davidsons article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middleclass incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average jobcould earn an average lifestyle. But, today, average is officially over. Being average just wont earn you what it used to. It cant when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra—their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.

Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But theres been an acceleration. As Davidson notes, “ In the 10 years ending in 2009, U.S.factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs—about 6 million in total—disappeared.”

There will always be changed—new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to posthigh school education.

21.The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate.

Athe impact of technological advances

Bthe alleviation of job pressure

Cthe shrinkage of textile mills

Dthe decline of middleclass incomes

22.According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to.

Awork on cheap software

Bask for a moderate salary

Cadopt an average lifestyle

Dcontribute something unique

23.The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that.

Agains of technology have been erased

Bjob opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

Cfactories are making much less money than before

Dnew jobs and services have been offered

24.According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is.

Ato accelerate the I.T. revolution

Bto ensure more education for people

Cto advance economic globalization

Dto pass more bills in the 21st century

25.Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text?

ANew Law Takes Effect

BTechnology Goes Cheap

CAverage Is Over

DRecession Is Bad

Text 2

A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and who would make some money and go home. Between 1908 and 1915, about 7 million people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.

Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or brand them as aliens to be kicked out. That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We dont need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.

Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home healthcare aides and physicists are among todays birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas. They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them. They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.

With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.

Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle. Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes, including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.

26.“Birds of passage” refers to those who.

Aimmigrate across the Atlantic

Bleave their home countries for good

Cstay in a foreign country temporarily

Dfind permanent jobs overseas

27.It is implied in Paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the U.S..

Aneeds new immigrant categories

Bhas loosened control over immigrants

Cshould be adapted to meet challenges

Dhas been fixed via political means

28.According to the author, todays birds of passage want.

Afinancial incentives

Ba global recognition

Copportunities to get regular jobs

Dthe freedom to stay and leave

29.The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated.

Aas faithful partners

Bwith economic favors

Cwith legal tolerance

Das mighty rivals

30.Which is the best title for the passage?

ACome and Go: Big Mistake

BLiving and Thriving: Great Risk

CLegal or Illegal: Big Mistake

DWith or Without: Great Risk

Text 3

Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hardwired responses.

Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hardwired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or openmindedness.

But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli arent exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fastfood logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else were doing. Subjects exposed to fastfood flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases—or hire outside screeners.

John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” longterm study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation: two days, not two seconds.

Our ability to mute our hardwired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: dog can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasnt changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the highspeed trend.

31.The time needed in making decisions may.

Avary according to the urgency of the situation

Bprove the complexity of our brain reaction

Cdepend on the importance of the assessment

Dpredetermine the accuracy of our judgment

32.Our reaction to a fastfood logo shows that snap decisions.

Acan be associative

Bare not unconscious

Ccan be dangerous

Dare not impulsive

33.To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should.

Atrust our first impression

Bdo as people usually do

Cthink before we act

Dask for expert advice

34.John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on.

Acritical assessment

B“thin sliced” study

Csensible explanation

Dadequate information

35.The authors attitude toward reversing the highspeed trend is.

Atolerant

Buncertain

Coptimistic

Ddoubtful

Text 4

Europe is not a genderequality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely familyfriendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europes top corporategovernance positions remain overwhelmingly male. Indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.

The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women—up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.

Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate ladder fairly as they balance work and family?

“Personally, I dont like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But I like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.

I understand Redings reluctance—and her frustration. I dont like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. But, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.

After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as well as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position—no matter how much “soft pressure” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power—as, for example, Shery Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.

If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women—whether CEOs or their childrens caregivers—and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.

36.In the European corporate workplace, generally.

Awomen take the lead

Bmen have the final say

Ccorporate governance is overwhelmed

Dsenior management is familyfriendly

37.The European Unions intended legislation is.

Aa reflection of gender balance

Ba reluctant choice

Ca response to Redings call

Da voluntary action

38.According to Reding, quotas may help women.

Aget top business positions

Bsee through the glass ceiling

Cbalance work and family

Danticipate legal results

39.The authors attitude toward Redings appeal is one of.

Askepticism

Bobjectiveness

Cindifference

Dapproval

40.Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of.

Amore social justice

Bmassive media attention

Csuitable public policies

Dgreater “soft pressure”

Part B

Directions:

You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list AG for each numbered paragraph (4145).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. 10 points

ALive like a peasant

BBalance your diet

CShopkeepers are your friends

DRemember to treat yourself

EStick to what you need

FPlanning is everything

GWaste not, want not

The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has 60 a week to spend, 40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning 130,000 a year working in corporate communications and eating at Londons best restaurants at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious.“The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that Id lost. But its still a daybyday thing.”Now hes living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. Hes feeling positive, but hell carry on blogging—not about eating as cheaply as you can—“there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food”—but eating well on a budget. Heres his advice for economical foodies.

41.

Impulsive spending isnt an option, so plan your weeks menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: its not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. Its also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being human, youll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.

42.

This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, theres not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, youll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is prepacked in the supermarket chiller.

43.

You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer—thats not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables youll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to “go off”will be cooked or juiced.

44.

Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fishsellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon youll feel comfortable asking if theyve any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, theyll let you have for free.

45.

You wont be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant—1.75 a week for three months gives you 21—more than enough for a threecourse lunch at Michelinstarred Arbutus. Its 16.95 there—or 12.99 for a large pizza from Dominos: I know which Id rather eat.

Section III Translation

46.Directions:

Translate the following text from English to Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2.15 points

I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week. Ive been able to do this, since I was 4.

I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs. My mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away neatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everybody does—try to put it to one side. I dont think its harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesnt make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical Hair opened on Broadway on the same day—they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

Section IV Writing

Part A

47.Directions:

Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale for kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to

1) inform them about the details and

2) encourage them to participate.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. Dont write your address.10 points

Part B

48.Directions:

Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words.15 points


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某高校学生兼职情况

2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)参考答案

1.[答案] [A

[考点] 上下文逻辑关系

[解析] 此类考题形式表明本题考查上下文之间存在的逻辑关系,理解上下文并破解其逻辑关系是解题的关键。空格所在句的上句大意为:我们可能马上就进入一个无现金社会;而本句大意为:一个无现金社会不太可能很快出现,由此可见上下文之间有转折关系。[A]项However意为然而,表转折,符合题意;[B]项Moreover意为而且,表递进;[C]项Therefore意为因此,表结果;[D]项Otherwise意为否则,表对比。

2.[答案] [D

[考点] 句内语义理解与介词辨析

[解析] 根据空格所在句中的but可知,本句前后两个分句存在转折关系。第二个分句大意为:这样一个(无现金)社会的预言没有实现,所以第一个分句大意应该为:这样的预言已经进行(或存在)了二十年。[D]项around作表语,表示在存在,在使用中,符合题意。

3.[答案] [B

[考点] 上下文逻辑与名词辨析

[解析] 该句大意为:《商业周刊》于1975年就预言电子支付将很快彻底改变金钱的。在无法猜测空格所需要词义的时候,我们可以采用代入法,即:把四个选项分别放入句子试验,从而确定正确选项。[A]项power意为力量,权利;[B]项concept意为理念,概念;[C]项history意为历史;[D]项role意为角色。电子支付将会改变金钱这一概念,由此可知[B]项符合题意。

4.[答案] [D

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词词义辨析

[解析] 本句空格之前部分大意为:商业周刊于1975年就预言说电子支付将彻底改变金钱这一概念only to意为却;不料竟会,表示结果出乎意料,itself指代商业周刊,由此推测空格中需要否定或者推翻等类似词义。[A]项reward意为奖赏;报答;[B]项resist意为抵制,抵抗;[C]项resume意为重新开始,继续;[D]项reverse意为推翻;使倒退;逆转,故[D]符合题意。

5.[答案] [C

[考点] 上下文逻辑与形容词词义辨析

[解析] 上文说明了早在1975年就有预言说无现金社会可能即将到来,而作者认为实际上真正的无现金社会不会马上到来,并通过事例证明。空格所在句子就是提问为什么会这样,也就是为什么无现金社会只可能缓慢到来,所以本题答案为[C]项slow。[A]项silent意为安静的,沉默的;[B]项sudden意为突然的;[D]项steady意为平稳的;固定的,都与题意不符,故[D]排除。

6.[答案] [B

[考点] 上下文语义与动词词组辨析

[解析] 上一段最后提问为什么无现金社会的到来如此缓慢,本段将分析其原因;同时, although引导的让步状语从句肯定了电子货币might be more convenient and may be more efficient(便捷,高效),空格所在主句与从句之间存在转折关系,意思是说几个因素使得纸币系统不会消失。空格之前的动词work意为起作用;与[B]项构成work against,意为违背,妨碍;起反作用,符合题意;与[C]项构成work with,意为……共事,对……起作用;与[D]项构成work on,意为从事……工作,对……起作用,都不符合题意,排除。

7.[答案] [B

[考点] 句内语义理解与形容词词义辨析

[解析] 空格所在句为纸币支付不会消失的第一个原因,同时,空格中的形容词是对to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks(安装电脑、读卡器,建立通讯网络)的说明。[A]项imaginative意为富有想象力的,明显不符合句意;[B]项expensive意为昂贵的,符合句意;[C]项sensitive意为敏感的,灵感的,不符合句意;[D]项productive意为多产的,不符合句意。

8.[答案] [D

[考点] 上下文逻辑与形容词词义辨析

[解析] 本段探讨电子货币不能取代纸币的原因,空格所在句意为使得电子货币成为(什么性质的)支付方式,由此推断,空格中需要主流,主要,流行等类似词义。[A]项similar意为相似的;[B]项original意为原始的,独创的;[C]项temporary意为暂时的,临时的,与题意不符,排除。[D]项dominant意为统治的,处于支配地位的,符合题意。

9.[答案] [B

[考点] 上下文逻辑与名词词义辨析

[解析] 空格所在句是电子货币不会取代纸质货币的第二个原因,就是纸质支票的一个优点;能(什么)receipt(收据,发票;收入),由此推测空格中需要提供等类似词义。[A]项collect意为收集,与句意不符,排除;[B]项provide意为提供,符合句意;[C]项copy意为复印;[D]项print意为打印,不符合句意,排除。

10.[答案] [A

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词短语解析

[解析] 空格中动词短语的宾语是something,指代上文的advantage,即:纸质支票支付具有能够提供收据这一优势,而这一优势人们自然是不会放弃的。由此推测空格中需要填入意为放弃之类的单词。[A]项give up意为放弃,符合题意;[B]项take over意为接管;[C]项bring back意为拿回来;回想起;[D]项pass down意为使流传,一代传一代,均不符合题意,可排除。

11.[答案] [A

[考点] 句内语义理解与连接词辨析

[解析] 空格中是连接词,连接两个分句,前一分句大意为:需要花几天,后一分句大意为:纸质钞票兑现;同时本句最后which引导的定语从句也对空格所在部分发生的事情做了解释:这就意味着可以获得利息。由此推断空格所在部分大意为:支票开出几天后才会兑现,由此确定本题答案为[A]项before

[注意] ...time/times/number/amount/all...before…可视为固定句式,表示多长时间/多少次数/多少数量/所有的都…………”之意。

12.[答案] [D

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词词义辨析

[解析] 空格所在部分与a check is cashed(支票兑现)通过and连接,为并列关系,语义相近;同时空格中被动态动词的主语为funds(资金)。由此推断空格中需要提取,提款等类似词义。[A]项kept意为保持,保存;[B]项borrowed意为借,借款;[C]项released意为释放,发布,均不符合题意,可排除。[D]项withdrawn意为取钱,提款;撤退,符合题意。

13.[答案] [C

[考点] 上下文逻辑与连接词辨析

[解析] 空格所在句子的上一句已经说明一个事实:the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of “float”,由此推断electronic payments are immediate(电子支付是即时的)是they eliminate the float for the consumer(排除了消费者的在途资金)的原因。[A]项Unless意为除非,表条件关系;[B]项Until意为直到,表示时间关系;[C]项Because意为因为,由于,表因果关系,符合题意;[D]项Though意为然而,表让步关系。

14.[答案] [C

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词词义解析

[解析] 空格中的动词为本句谓语动词,其主语是electronic means of payment(电子支付方式),宾语是security and privacy concerns(安全及隐私担忧)。由此推断空格中需要引起等类似词义。[A]项hide意为躲藏;隐瞒;[B]项express意为表达;[C]项raise意为引起;抬高;抚养,符合题意;[D]项ease意为减轻,缓解

15.[答案] [C

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词词义解析

[解析] 空格之前提到hacker(黑客)能够进入电脑数据库,那么下一个动作就是修改存储于数据库的信息。[A]项analyzed意为分析;[B]项shared意为分享,共有;[C]项stored意为储存,符合题意;[D]项displayed意为陈列,展示

16.[答案] [C

[考点] 上下文逻辑与形容词词义辨析

[解析] 上一段最后一句提到我们常常听到黑客进入电脑数据库修改信息的事实,空格所在句中的this指代这一事实;同时,本句表示肯定,而前面又出现了否定词,所以要用双重否定,选填词汇意思应为不普遍的。[A]项unsafe意为不安全的;[B]项unnatural意为不自然的;[C]项uncommon意为不是普遍的,符合题意。[D]项unclear意为不清楚的

17.[答案] [A

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词词义辨析

[解析] 空格中动词与access bank accounts in electronic payments systems(进入电子支付系统的银行账户)是并列谓语,其主语是dishonest persons(不诚实的人们),由此可以推断他们进入银行账户的下一个动作就是偷窃。[A]项steal意为偷盗,偷窃,符合题意;[B]项choose意为挑选;[C]项benefit意为收益,有利于;[D]项return意为归还,返回

18.[答案] [B

[考点] 上下文逻辑与名词词义辨析

[解析] 空格所在句中的this type of fraud(这种诈骗)指代上文进入银行账户盗取他人资金的行为,结合空格之后的no easy task(并非易事)可以推断空格中需要解决,应对预防等类似词义。[A]项consideration意为考虑;[B]项prevention意为阻止,防止,符合题意;[C]项manipulation意为操纵;[D]项justification 意为正当理由

19.[答案] [A

[考点] 句内语义理解与动词短语辨析

[解析] 空格所在句子用and与上句连接,是并列关系,上句提到预防此类诈骗并非易事,本句大意为:计算机科学的一个崭新领域正在发展,由此推断其目的便是解决这个问题。[A]项cope with 意为妥善处理,解决,符合题意;[B]项fight against 意为反对;[C]项adapt to 意为适应;[D]项call for 意为需要,需求

20.[答案] [D

[考点] 句内语义理解与名词词义辨析

[解析] 空格所在句子指出了人们对电子支付的另一个担忧:电子支付会留下电子形式的痕迹,其中包括大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。[A]项chunk 意为厚块,大块;[B]项chip意为芯片;薯条;[C]项path意为小路,路;[D]项trail意为痕迹,踪迹,符合题意。

【全文翻译】

想到电子货币的种种优势,你可能会认为我们会很快进入无现金社会,在这里,所有支付都以电子形式完成。然而,真正意义上的无现金社会不会很快到来。的确,早在二十年前就出现了无现金社会的预言,但是至今仍没有实现。例如,《商业周刊》于1975年就预言说电子支付形式将很快彻底改变金钱本身的概念,而结果却是几年后推翻了自己的预言。为什么进入无现金社会的过程这么缓慢呢?

尽管比起纸质货币支付系统,电子支付更便捷、更高效,然而几个因素使得纸币支付系统不会消失。首先,要使电子货币成为主流支付方式,就必须安装电脑和读卡器并建立通讯网络,这是非常昂贵的;第二,纸质支票的优势是它能提供凭证,而很多顾客不愿放弃凭证;第三,使用纸质支票,顾客就有几日的在途资金,也就是说:要过几天支票才兑现,账户中的资金才被提取,这就意味着写支票的人可以得到几日的利息。由于电子支付时是即时的,就排除了顾客的在途资金;第四,电子支付可能会引起人们对安全和隐私问题的担忧。我们经常听到这样的媒体报道:黑客未经授权就能够进入电脑数据库,篡改其中存储的信息。

此类事件的发生并非异常,这就意味着不诚实的人会进入电子支付系统的账户,从他人账户中盗走资金。预防此类诈骗行为并非易事,计算机科学的一个新领域正在发展,试图解决这一难题。人们对电子支付形式的另一种担忧是电子支付方式会留下一些痕迹,其中包含大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。人们担忧政府部门、雇主、销售人员可以获取这些信息,进而侵犯个人隐私。

21.[答案] [A

[考点] 例证题

[正确项精解] 例证题的解题思路是:先找到事例,如果事例出现在文章开头,其作用往往是引出主题或阐明观点;如果事例出现在行文之中,其作用是为了证明某一观点。本题中的joke出现在文章开头,其作用首先是引出文章主题,但是也有证明观点的作用。阅读得知,第一段全段都是joke的内容,于是要证明的观点应该出现在第二段,阅读第二段得知本段便是joke所要阐明的观点,其大意为:高失业率和中产阶层收入下降的一个原因是全球化和信息技术的进步。由此确定[A]为本题答案。是对该句内容的概括和同义替换

[干扰项分析] [B]就业压力的缓解,与本文谈论话题相反,属于正反混淆;[C]纺织厂规模的缩减,与文章内容无关,属于无中生有,[D]中产阶级收入减少,不是文章谈论的重点,文章重在谈论造成中产阶级收入减少的原因(技术进步的影响),属于偷换概念

22. [答案] [D

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 限定在第三段。根据题干关键词to be a successful employee,精确定位到文章第三段的最后一句Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra—their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment,其中,stand out (突出)对应题干中的to be successful, 由此理解到要成为成功的员工,everyone needs to find their extra(人人都需要找到自己超常的价值),也就是说their unique value contribution(他们独特的贡献)。[D]项中的contribute something unique是对their unique value contribution的同义改写,为本题的答案。属于同义替换

[干扰项分析] [A]项的干扰来自于第三段:It cant when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius.文中意思是,雇主(employer)可以购买到便宜的软件,而不是说员工(employee)的情况,属于偷换概念。[B]项a moderate salary在文中没有相关信息,属于无中生有。[C]项的干扰来自第三段第一句In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average jobcould earn an average lifestyle.(过去,掌握一般技术,从事一般性工作的人可以通过劳动过上普通的正常生活。)显然文中是说过去平庸的人可以过上一般的生活,而[C]项将an average lifestyle安插在successful employee身上,属于张冠李戴

23. [答案] [B

[考点] 例证题

[正确项精解] 本题中的quotation出现在第四段,属于文中引用(举例),要证明的观点便是其上一句:Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But theres been acceleration(新技术一直并将继续吞噬工作岗位,但是近来有加速的趋势)。由此可见[B]项为本题答案。如果前一句话确实理解不透,便可认真领会例子本身传递的道理。[B]项和[D]项内容相反,一般其中之一正确。

[干扰项分析] [A]项gains of technology have been erased中的been erased在文中找不到依据,[C]项factories are making much less money than before也没有相关内容提及,属于无中生有。文章第三段说明,工作岗位正在减少,而[D]项正好相反,属于正反混淆

[技巧点拨] 事例、引用和数据在文章中具有相同的作用:引出文章主题或者证明某个观点,此类题目都可归为例证题。解题思路是:先找到事例,再看其在文中的位置,如果出现在文章开头,其作用是引出主题或者阐述一个观点,如果出现在行文之中,其作用一定是证明某个观点,并且要证明的观点一般都在事例本身所在句子的上一句,有时候也可能在下一句。

24. [答案] [B

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 根据本题关键词to reduce unemployment, 精确定位到最后一段:there are many things we need to do to support employment(需要很多东西来支持就业),所谓支持就业便是减少失业,之后的but nothing would be more important than(但最重要的是)给出了本题答案:passing some kind of G. I. Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to posthigh school education,其大意为:通过某些法案确保每个美国人都有机会接受高中以后的教育。由此可见,减少失业最重要的是让人们接受教育,[B]项为本题答案。属于同义替换

[干扰项分析] [A]项和[C]项的干扰都来自第二段:the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middleclass incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution,即失业率一直居高不下、中产阶层收入下降的原因是全球化以及信息技术革命的进步,可见全球化以及信息技术革命是导致失业增多的原因,而非减少失业的措施,属于因果倒置。[D]项的干扰来自文章最后一句,文章提及要颁布更多法案,但颁布法案的目的是为了保障教育,这属于偷换概念

25. [答案] [C

[考点] 主旨题

[正确项精解] 第一段和第二段均属于对Adam Davidson 文章的引用和说明,主题就在第三段,第三段第一句话为In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job, could earn an average lifestyle,但第二句的转折词But立刻把中心转移到:today, average is officially over,大意为:如今,平庸(一般化)时代正式结束了。第四段进一步阐述技术进步给就业形势造成的严峻冲击,接下来是从业者的解决措施:接受更多更好的教育,使自己超越普通人。最后一段重申主题:平庸时代正式结束。由此可见,[C]项为本题答案。属于概括性

[干扰项分析] [A]项和[B]项在文中都有所体现,但都是片面之词,并非文章主旨,属于以偏概全。文章根本没有提及经济萧条这一情况,故[D萧条很糟糕属于无中生有

[技巧点拨] 主旨题大多都可以通过第一段的理解、对文章引出主题方式的辨认来解答。首段提问、转移中心、事例开头、类比开头都是引出主题的方式。本文开头显然是引用,属于事例开头法引出主题的形式。

【全文翻译】

Adam Davidson在其题为成功在美国的文章中讲述了这样一个棉花生产国的笑话,是关于现代棉织厂高度自动化的:如今一般工厂只有两名员工,一个人和一条狗,人的职责是喂狗,狗的职责是不让人靠近机器。

Adam Davidson的文章只是众多类似文章的代表,这些文章都阐明了同一个观点:失业率一直居高不下、中产阶层收入下降的原因也是全球化以及信息技术革命的进步,而这一进步比以往更加迅速地用机器和外籍工人来代替劳动力。

过去,掌握一般技术、从事一般性工作的人可以通过劳动过上普通的生活。但如今平庸时代正式结束了。平庸无法使你过上过去那样的生活。当更多的雇主有更多的途径招募到非凡廉价的外国劳动者,购买到廉价的机器人和软件,低成本实现自动化,也可以挖掘到廉价的人才时,平庸无法使你过上过去那样的生活。所以,每个人都不得不找到自己的额外价值,也就是能使其在任何职业领域都突出的特有的价值贡献。

的确,新技术一直并将继续吞噬工作岗位,但是近来有加速的趋势。正如Adam Davidson所说,20002009的十年间美国工厂裁员速度如此之快,以至于裁减人数几乎到了以前70年招工人数的总和;大约三分之一的制造业岗位消失不见,失业总数高达600万。

将来也一直会有改变:新工作、新产品和新服务。但我们可以肯定的是,随着全球化和IT技术的进步,将来最好的工作都会对从业者提出新的要求:他们必须接受更多更好的教育,使自己超越普通人。

在平庸时代正式结束的社会,我们不得不采取多种措施保障就业,但最重要的莫过于通过某种《退伍军人权利法案》之类的法案,确保每个美国人在21世纪都有机会接受高中之后的教育。

26. [答案] [C

[考点] 猜词题

[正确项精解] 根据题干Birds of passage,精确定位到第一段最后一句。分析该句中birds of passage所指,其作nickname的同位语;是 they 的绰号,这时理解的重点就是they。根据代词回指的特点去上句寻找答案,“About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good.”(大约四分之一的意大利移民最终还是返回意大利),they指代的就是四分之一最终回国的意大利移民。由此确定选项[C]为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] [A]项利用首段第一句the immigrants from across the Atlantic设置干扰,此处说的是100年前的移民,而不是birds of passage所指,属于张冠李戴。[B]项与文中表达意思刚好相反,属于正反混淆。[D]项在文中没有相关信息体现。

[技巧点拨] 猜词题必须放到该词所在的语境中猜测,有时利用该词所在句子便可推测;当本句没有足够猜词信息时,就得利用该词所在句子与上句或下句的语义关系猜测。

27. [答案] [C

[考点] 推断题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是the current immigration system in the U.S.,该信息点出现在第二段第四句话:That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it(那样的构架导致移民制度漏洞百出,也导致了长期以来没有能力在政治上修改移民制度的事实),这就暗示美国移民制度问题较多,需要修改;随后指出了修改的目标:We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges(那时我们可能开始解决移民的挑战),由此确定[C]项为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] [A]项与文章内容We dont need more categories表达的意思相反;[B]项与Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants(如今对移民更加严格)相反,都属于正反混淆;[D]项has been fixed在文中没有体现,属于无中生有

28. [答案] [D

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是todays birds of passage。该信息点出现在文章第三段第一句,但是本句话说明他们的职业构成,跟本题无关;第三句的They也指代todays birds of passage,句中的prefer(宁愿,更喜欢)表达了want之意:to come and go as opportunities call them(他们宁愿随着机会的需要而迁移)。由此确定[D]项为本题答案,属于典型的同义替换

[干扰项分析] [A]项的干扰来自a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas,此处受金钱驱动的是全球经济,而不是说短暂移民,属于张冠李戴。[B]项在文中找不到依据。[C]项的干扰在第三段最后一句:他们能够设法在一地工作,而在另一地安家,此处没有提到固定工作,属于无中生有

29. [答案] [C

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是the birds of passage today should be treated(应该以何种方式被对待)。第五段第一句话Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle中的require new attitudes(需要新的态度)表明本段涉及如何对待短期移民的信息。根据上下文连贯的原则我们可以确定,下句将说明什么样的态度:Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomesincluding some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system(超越文化战争逻辑的对错意味着,我们要开辟(合法与非法的)中间地带,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径和多样化结果,包括当前移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题)。由此确定[C]项为本题答案,这属于典型的正话反说,反话正说

[干扰项分析] [A]项、[B]项和[D]项在文中均没有内容提及,属于无中生有

30. [答案] [C

[考点] 主旨题

[正确项精解] 本文第一段介绍过去的移民状况,并引用数据,在第二段开头引入主旨:Todaywe are much more rigid about immigrants(如今,关于移民我们更加严格),下句指出如何严格:We divide newcomers into two categorieslegal or illegalgood or bad(我们把新移民分为两类:合法和不合法,好与坏)。由此可见,本文作者要论证的就是对移民严格划分成合法与非法两种情况的错误政策,[C]项为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] 本文论述的是移民迁徙自由问题,目前的移民制度漏洞百出,应鼓励移民来去自由,[A]项与文章主旨相悖,属于正反混淆;[B]项和[D]项的Great Risk在文中根本没有提及,属于无中生有

【全文翻译】

100年前,跨越大西洋而来的移民中有定居者,也有旅居者。伴随很多打算在美国永久安家的移民而来的,还有一些无意定居美国的人,他们赚了钱就会返回家乡。19081915年间,大约700万人来到这里,与此同时有200万人离开。大约四分之一的意大利移民最终永久地回到祖国,他们甚至有了一个亲切的绰号:候鸟

到了今天,我们对待移民更加严格。我们把新来的移民划分为两类:合法与不合法、好与坏。我们把他们当作即将成为美国公民的人来欢迎,又或者当成是需要驱逐的外国人。这种思想体系使我们的移民制度漏洞百出,同时导致了修改移民制度方面的长期政治僵局。我们不需要更多的分类,而是需要改变我们考虑分类的方式。我们应该超越合法与非法的严格定义(来思考移民类别)。首先,我们应该承认那些新来的短期移民,也就是那些在灰色地带生活并发展的人们。那样,我们才能开始解决移民问题的诸多难题。

如今的短期移民中有收粮工人、小提琴家、建筑工人、企业家、工程师、家庭医护助理、物理学家等等。他们精力充沛地参与到受劳动力流动、金钱和信念驱动的全球经济之中。他们宁愿随着机会的需要而迁移。他们能够设法在一地工作,而在另一地安家。

不管有没有许可,他们都可以轻而易举地跨越法律、权限和身份。我们需要他们把美国想象成他们可以暂时取得成果而无需承诺永久居留的地方;我们需要他们感觉到家可以安在这里,也可以在其他地方,他们可以光荣地成为两个国家的公民。

调和这个人口在不断流动的新世界需要在移民问题上争论的双方抱有新的态度。超越文化战争逻辑的对错意味着,我们要开辟(合法与非法的)中间地带,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径和多样化结果,包括当前移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题。

31. [答案] [D

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是The time needed in making decision。第一段的if we take a moment and think about ...体现了该关键词,if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to reactwe can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quickhardwired responses(如果我们在做出反应之前花点时间来思考,将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响),这也就是说,我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。另外,本题关键词还出现在第二段第二、三句:But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociablestudies showwe need at least a minutepreferably five(我们需要更多时间评估其他因素,要准确说出某人友好,我们需要至少一分钟,五分钟更好)。由此得出结论:决策所用时间决定判断的准确性。所以[D]项为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] [A]项中的urgency of the situation和[C]项中的importance of the assessment在文章中没有信息提及,属于无中生有,[B]项中的complexity根据It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality设置,属于偷换概念

32. [答案] [A

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是Our reaction to a fastfood logo,该关键词出现在第三段第二句话:viewing a fastfood logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent fastereven though reading has little to do with eating(看到快餐商标会使我们阅读速度加快20%,而实际上阅读与吃几乎无关)。本段第三句We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else were doing(人们无意识的将快餐与速度和不耐烦联系在一起,并将这些冲动付诸行动)。由此可见,对一件事情的快速反应也会影响到对其他事情的行为,所以[A]项为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] [B]项的干扰来自We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience...,与文中意思相反,属于正反混淆,[C]项dangerous一词在文中没有依据,属于无中生有,[D]项与文章carry those impulses into whatever else were doing的意思相反,属于正反混淆

33. [答案] [C

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是reverse the negative influences of snap decisions。该关键词出现在第四段第一句话:Yet we can reverse such influences(然而,我们可以扭转这样的影响),下一句是:If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy faceone reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling),we can take a moment before buying(如果知道我们在面对销售代表和房屋代理人的笑脸时会感情用事,我们可以在买之前花点时间考虑),也就是说思考一会再买。由此可见[C]项为本题答案,属于典型的同义替换

[干扰项分析] [A]项正好与we can take a moment before buying相反,属于正反混淆;文章中没有出现people usually do 这一信息,[B]项属于无中生有;[D]项根据the marriage expert设置干扰,作者举婚姻专家的例子是用来说明需要更长的时间来做决定,而[D]项听取专家建议之意,属于张冠李戴

34. [答案] [D

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是reliable snap reactions are based on,同时限定在John Gottman 研究范围内。由此精确定位到第五段。第一句是John Gottman...explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reaction in “thick sliced”longterm study,其中的quickly“thin slice” information reliably对应reliable snap reactionground在此为动词,意为……为基础,对应are based on。本句大意为:我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是以长期的研究为基础的。由此可见[D]项为本题答案。如果本句难以理解,可以再阅读下一句:When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay togetherhe invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluationtwo daysnot to second,本句用Gottman自己为例说明他如何做出评判,意为:当Gottman真想评判一对恋人是否最终会走到一起的时候,他会邀请他们去他闲居的小岛,从而有更长的时间评价。由此也可以确定可靠的快速判断基于充足信息。

[干扰项分析] [A]项“critical assessment”和[C]项sensible explanation在文中没有信息提及,属于无中生有;[B]项“thin sliced” study与文中ground such snap reaction in “thick sliced” longterm study意思正好相反,属于正反混淆

35. [答案] [C

[考点] 态度题

[正确项精解] 根据关键词reversing the highspeed trend精确定位到最后一段。最后一段最后两句是:Although technology might change the way we react,it hasnt changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the highspeed trend(尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有想象力去克服诱惑并扭转这种快速反应的趋势)。其中的we still have the imaginative capacity表明了作者的态度是乐观的,[C]项为本题答案,属于典型同义替换

[干扰项分析] 文章没有信息表明作者的宽容态度,故[A]项属于无中生有;文中最后一段作者对扭转快速反应的态度是明确,因此[B]项和[D]项都属于正反混淆

【全文翻译】

科学家已经发现人们很容易快速做出感情用事的决定,但是如果花时间考虑一下我们可能做出怎么样的反应,就可以减少或者消除快速本能反应的负面影响。

快速决策可能是重要的防御机制,如果我们要判断某个人是否危险,我们的大脑和身体会本能地在几毫秒内快速做出反应。但是,我们需要更多时间评估其他因素。研究表明:要准确判断某人是否友善,人们至少需要一分钟来判断,五分钟更好。人们需要一点时间判断性格的复杂层面,比如是神经质还是思维开阔。

但是,快速刺激下的快速反应并不只限于人际范畴。多伦多大学的心理学家发现,看快餐商标短短几毫秒就会使人们阅读速度提高20%,虽然阅读和进餐几乎没任何关系。人们无意识地把快餐与速度、不耐烦联系在一起,并把这些冲动付诸于我们的所有行动。接触过快餐广告的实验对象往往也会认为一小段音乐持续太长。

然而,我们可以扭转这种影响。如果我们知道面对销售代表和房屋代理人的笑脸,会对消费产品或房屋选择感情用事,我们就应该花点时间(考虑),然后再(决定)购买。如果我们知道女性招聘者更有可能拒绝有魅力的女性求职者(的事实),我们就可以帮助招聘者了解其偏见,或者雇佣外来招聘者。

婚姻专家John Gottman解释说,只有我们把快速反应建立在多方面的长期研究上,快速反应的信息才能准确。Gottman要是想真正评判一对恋人是否最终走到一起,他就会邀请他们去他闲居的小岛,用更长的时间来评价:两天,而不是两秒。

我们有能力通过暂停的办法减少本能反应,这使人类有别于动物。狗可以考虑未来,但思考过程不连续,持续时间很短。但是从历史上来看,我们一天内会用12%的时间进行长远的思考。尽管技术可能会改变我们做出反应的方式,但是没有改变我们的天性。我们仍然有想象力去克服诱惑并扭转快速反应的趋势。

36. [答案] [B

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是the European corporate workplace。根据关键词the European corporate workplace,精确定位到文章的第一段第二句:the corporate workplace will never be completely familyfriendly until women are part of senior management decisions,and Europes top corporategovernance positions remain overwhelmingly male,本句话中并列连词and 说明企业职场的两个特点:(1)never be completely familyfriendly(永远不会有利于家庭);(2)top corporategovernance positions remain overwhelmingly male(高层管理岗位男性数量是压倒性的),也就是说:男性统治着企业。由此确定[B]项为本题答案,属于同义替换

[干扰项分析] 干扰项[A]与原文Europes top corporategovernance positions remain overwhelmingly male正好相反,[D]项也与原文意思相反,属于正反混淆。[C]项中的overwhelmed一词不等同于文中overwhelmingly,属于偷换概念

37. [答案] [A

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是European Unions intended legislation。该关键词可以精确定位到第二段第一句:The European Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women—up to 60 percent,其中的is now considering legislation对应intended legislation。其大意为:欧盟正在考虑通过立法强制公司董事会保持一定比例的女性——可高达60%。由此可见:立法是为了保持性别比例的平衡。所以[A]项为本题答案,属于同义替换

[干扰项分析] [B]项的“reluctant”是根据第五段的Redings reluctance设置的干扰项,并不是说European Union的立法,属张冠李戴;[C]项a response to Redings call不正确,Reding号召的是voluntary action,属于偷换概念。[D]项也是干扰项,欧盟的立法是compel(被迫),而不是自愿行动,属于正反混淆

38. [答案] [A

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是quotas may help women。该关键词可以精确定位到第四段第一句话:“PersonallyI dont like quotas”Reding said recently“But I like what the quotas do.”,其中I like what the quotas to暗示quotas的作用。接着说:Quotas get actionthey “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling”according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions,由此可见quotas的作用就是get action,冒号之后内容是对get action的解释,即quotas的作用:(1)开辟通向平等之路;(2)突破了职场障碍。a result为同位语,大意为:在法国和其他国家能看到这一效果,这些国家以法律约束条款让女性身居商业高层职位。由此可见[A]项为本题答案,属于同义替换

[干扰项分析] [B]项根据原文break through the glass ceiling设置干扰,但see through并非break through之意,属于偷换概念;[C]项的干扰来自Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate ladder fairly as they balance work and family?(我们需要制定限额确保女性在平衡工作和家庭的同时,又能继续公平地攀爬事业的阶梯吗?)此句为作者的观点,并且使用的是疑问语气,而非Reding的观点,属于张冠李戴。[D]项anticipate legal results在文中找不到依据,属于无中生有

39. [答案] [D

[考点] 态度题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是attitude toward Redings appealRedingappeal最早出现在第二段Reding issued a call to voluntary action(发出号召呼吁自愿行动),但第二段没有作者的评论。根据题目编排顺序与文章顺序一致的原则,上一题答案在第四段,所以本题答案很可能在第五段:第五段第一句本身就是作者对Reding观点的评论:作者先是说可以理解Reding,自己本身也不喜欢quotas,而下一句的But起转折作用,提出自己的见解:When one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic idealit does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered(考虑到实现精英管理理想的诸多障碍,看起来似乎更加公平的世界应该暂时被规定)。其中,a fairer world含义为职场男女平等,就此,作者和Reding有相同观点,认为企业高级管理层应当有更多女性,所以[D]项为答案。

[干扰项分析] [A]属于无中生有,文中找不到作者对Redings appeal的怀疑态度。文章第五段作者表明了对Redings appeal 的支持,故[B]项不正确,属于无中生有。[C]项属于典型错误,一般来说作者的态度不可能是漠不关心的。

40. [答案] [C

[考点] 细节题

[正确项精解] 本题关键词是women entering top management become headlines,该关键词可定位到第六段第二句话:when women do break through to the summit of corporate powerthey attract massive attention(女性实现突破达到企业最高权力层时,总会引来大量的关注),引起大量关注意味着成为headlines(重要新闻)。随后的because说明了原因:they remain the exception to the rule(她们仍然是规则的例外)。正话反说就是规则不合理。其实本题还有另一处更明显、更直接的定位:最后一段If appropriate public policies were in place to help all women...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy... (如果有合理的国家政策来帮助所有女性,Sandberg也就没有报道价值了)暗示Sandberg之所以成为有价值的新闻原因就是国家政策不合理。基于以上两次定位及理解,可以确定[C]项为本题答案。

[干扰项分析] [A]项的干扰来自living in a more just society,此处的社会公平说的是能力出众的人不受性别的限制,属于偷换概念;[B]项根据they attract massive attention设置干扰,与原文意思相反,属于正反混淆。[D]项 “soft pressure” 来自文中After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as well as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position—no matter how much “soft pressure” is put upon them.(毕竟,四十年的证据表明,不管受到多大软压力,欧洲以及美国的企业都在规避精英选才原则,拒绝把女性提拔到高层。)选项与文意相反,属于正反混淆

【全文翻译】

欧洲并非性别平等的天堂。除非女性成为高级管理决策层的组成部分,否则企业办公室永远不会有利于家庭生活;而且欧洲企业高层管理岗位上,男性仍然占绝对多数。的确,在欧洲企业董事会中,女性所占比例仅为14%

欧盟正在考虑通过立法强制公司董事会保持一定比例的女性——可高达60%。这一提议一出来就遭到挫败。去年,欧盟委员会副主席Viviane Reding发出号召呼吁自愿行动。Reding邀请公司签署性别均衡协议,该协议要求女性在董事会中占40%。但是她的呼吁被认为是失败之作,仅有24家公司接受。

我们需要制定限额确保女性在平衡工作和家庭的同时,又能继续公平地攀爬事业的阶梯吗?

Reding最近说过:我个人不喜欢定额,但是我喜欢定额达到的效果。根据Reding所言,定额确实起到了作用,它们开启了平等之门,打破了无形的职场障碍,在法国和其他国家能看到这一效果,这些国家以法律约束条款让女性身居商业高层职位。

我理解Reding对定额的不情愿,也理解她的挫败感。我也不喜欢定额,其与我任人唯贤的精英管理理念相悖。但是考虑到实现精英管理理想的诸多障碍,看起来似乎更加公平的世界应该暂时被规定。

毕竟,四十年的证据表明,不管受到多大软压力,欧洲以及美国的企业都在规避精英选才原则,拒绝把女性提拔到高层。女性一旦有所突破进入到企业权力高层,就会引起很大关注,毕竟她们是这个社会规则的例外。Shery Sandberg进入Facebook高层就是这样一个例子。

如果出台合理的国家政策帮助所有女性和家庭,无论是CEO或是她们的保姆,Sandberg的事迹就会和其他生活在公平社会中能力出众的人一样,不再有报道价值。

41.[答案] [F

[解析]快速阅读本段,第一句后半句出现了结论性的词so,因此是做题时需关注的重点,本句大意为:因此要提前计划(plan)好你每周的饮食;第二句和第三句是作者以自己的例子来论证提前计划的好处。因此本段的主题是提前做好计划,由此确定[F]项为本题答案。

42.[答案] [E

[解析]快速阅读本段,第一句话提到,This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy(这就是超市和不记名的好处),读到这里不明白好处是什么,于是接着往下看,第二句话提到theres not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer(不会有在小菜摊买一根胡萝卜那样的尴尬),言外之意是去超市购物不会因只买一点点自己需要的东西而尴尬;最后一句话提到youll know that you only need…not whatever weight(知道你只需要……而不是包装的重量)。由此可见,本段的主题是只买自己需要的东西,[E]项为本题答案。

43.[答案] [G

[解析]快速阅读本段,本段的主题在第三句:Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, if you have surplus vegetables youll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to “go off” will be cooked or juiced(提前计划应杜绝浪费,如果你有多余的蔬菜,可以做个蔬菜汤,快要变质的水果可以煮熟或榨汁)。由此可见,本段主要内容是不能浪费,[G]项为本题答案。

44.[答案] [C

[解析]快读本段,第一句说it really is a top tip for frugal eaters(对节俭的人来说,这是最好的建议);第二句是建议:and be super friendly(要特别友好);第三句是去小店购物并友好的好处:Soon youll feel comfortable asking…theyll let you have for free(很快你就可以很自在地问……他们会免费给你)。由此可见,本段的主题是对店主友好,店主就会友好待你,[C]项为本题答案。

45.[答案] [D

[解析]快读本段,本段共两句话,第一句话说:You wont be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant(你不经常出去吃饭,但每隔几个月要用节省的钱去高档饭店招待自己一顿丰盛午餐),第二句讲到了丰盛午餐的花费,因此本段的主要内容是适时款待自己一下。故[D]项为本题答案。

【全文翻译】

人气很旺的Skint Foodie 博客详细记录了Tony如何平衡喜爱美食与靠救助生活。付过各种账单之后,Tony 每周可支配金额为60 英镑,其中40英镑用于食物。但是10年前,他在企业通讯行业工作,年收入为130 000英镑,每周至少两次在伦敦最好的餐厅就餐。后来,他离婚了,事业毁了,并且开始酗酒。社区精神健康小组挽救了我的生命。当人们在我的博客积极回应时,在一定程度上,我又有了那种感觉。这让我重新得到了认可,也让我重拾信心。但是,日子仍然是要一天天过。现在,他居住在政府提供的公寓,正在答复出版商提供的工作机会。他感觉自己是积极向上的,但他会继续写博客,内容不是关于吃得尽可能便宜,而是在预算之内吃得健康,毕竟有很多人经济条件很差,几乎没钱购买食物。以下是他为经济美食家提供的建议。

41.F]计划很重要

冲动消费不是一种选择,所以事先筹划一周食谱,做一份购物清单,写明食材的确切用量。我做了一个关于一周早餐、午餐和晚餐的Excel表格模板。先别笑:这不只是节约花销,还有助于你平衡饮食。还有一个好主意:一天而不是一周购物一次,毕竟,喜欢吃什么随时都会改变。

42.E]只买需要的

这就是超市和其匿名购物的好处。有了这些,便不会出现在小菜摊上买一根胡萝卜那样的尴尬时刻。如果筹划得当,你就知道你仅仅需要350克牛肉、6片培根,而不是冰柜中包装好的那么多的量。

43.G]不浪费,不愁缺

你可能会得意地说我的冰箱里只剩下冻豌豆了,这并不是好事。我的冰箱里塞满了剩菜剩饭、面包、汤料、肉和鱼。提前计划应杜绝浪费,要是有剩余蔬菜,就可以做个蔬菜汤;即将变质的水果可以煮熟或者榨汁。

44.C]店主是朋友

大家都这么说,但这确实是对节俭的食者最好的建议。定期去肉店、熟食店、鱼摊购买哪怕是一丁点东西,一定要特别友好。很快,在问他们有没有炖汤的猪腿骨、牛骨、鸡骨头或鱼头的时候,你就不会不好意思了,而且他们多半会免费送你。

45.D]记得款待自己

你不会经常去餐馆吃饭,要节省每一便士,这样每隔几个月就去一家高档餐厅款待一下自己,每周节省1.75镑的话,三个月就会有21镑,这足够在Michelinstarred Arbutus点三道菜。这一顿饭会花掉16.95镑,或者可以花12.99镑去Dominos点一大份比萨,我知道我宁愿吃这款。

46. 我能从过去的53年中挑个日子,然后很快反应出自己在哪儿,当天有什么新闻,甚至是星期几。从四岁起,我就有了这种能力。

我从来不会因为大脑吸收的信息量庞大而感到难以承受。我的大脑似乎有能力应对,并且信息的储存也有条有理。当我想起伤心往事的时候,我做的也和大家一样——尽量搁到一边不管。我不认为因为我的记忆更清楚我就更难忘记。惊人的记忆力并没有使我的情感变得更为敏感或者更加细腻。我能够记得祖父去世的那天以及前一天我们去医院时我有多么难过。我也记得音乐剧《毛发》是在这天首登百老汇的——这两件事情以同样的方式迅速跳进我的脑海。

47.

Dear classmates,

I am writing this letter to inform that our class is going to hold a charity sale for the needy children in rural area of our province who have dropped out of school because their parents cannot afford their education. This activity will be held on our school’s playground on next Monday, January 22.

It is universally acknowledged that children are regarded as flowers and future of our nation; however, because of poverty, a growing number of kids in remote villages lost their learning opportunities which are not only crucial for their personal growth, but also essential for the sound development of the whole society. Consequently, there is no doubt that it is a noble cause to donate money to needy children through charity sale.

I really appeal to all the students to take part in this event and I will be grateful if you could come and give your donation.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

【参考译文】

我写这封信来告知大家,我们班要举行一场慈善义卖,目的是资助我省农村地区的贫困儿童,因为他们的父母无法负担他们的教育费用,很多这样的孩子辍学了。这项活动将于下星期一(122日)在我们学校的操场上举行。

众所周知,少年儿童是我们祖国的花朵和希望,然而,由于贫困,越来越多的偏远乡村的孩子失去了他们的学习机会,而学习机会不仅是他们的个人成长的关键,对于整个社会的健康发展也是必不可少的。因此,毫无疑问,通过义卖捐钱给贫困儿童是一个崇高的事业。

我在此真心呼吁所有的学生参加这次活动,如果大家能来捐款,我会很感激。

你们真诚的:李明

48.

【经典范文】

What can be seen from the chart is the proportion change of students having part-time jobs during the four years’ college study. The proportion increases slightly from the first year to the third year, however, the fourth year has witnessed a dramatic increase, surging to 88.24%.

There is no denying the fact that this trend is very pervasive in current colleges and, to some extent, quite proper. It is not difficult to come up with some possible factors accounting for this trend. To begin with, the major jobs of freshman and sophomore are to study, and to lay a solid foundation for their future work. What’s more, when students are going to step out of school and enter into society, they have to master lots of practical skills, for example, how to deal with challenges outside, so they have to take part in some part-time jobs. Apparently, doing part time job has many advantages. On the one hand, students can learn how to get along well with others and know the society more profoundly. On the other hand, to take a part-time job provides students with a valuable opportunity to put what they have learned from books into practice and make some money, which helps to reduce their families’ financial burden.

Due to the analysis above, this trend will continue for quite a while in the future. And it should be pointed out that study is the major task for college students though work experience is valuable. Students have to strike a balance between study and part-time job.

【参考译文】

从图中可以看到大学生在四年的大学学习中,参加兼职工作的人数比例的变化。从第一年至第三年,比例略有增加,然而,第四年已经发生了急剧的增长,上升到88.24%

不可否认的事实是,在当前高校这种趋势是非常普遍的,并且在某种程度上也是合适的。解释这一趋势并不困难。首先,对大学一年级和二年级的学生来说,其主要任务是学习,为自己的将来打下坚实的基础。其次,当学生们要走出学校进入社会时,他们必须掌握许多实践技能,例如如何应对外界的挑战,因此他们不得不参加一些兼职工作。显然,做兼职工作有许多优势。一方面,学生可以学习如何与别人相处,从而更深刻地了解社会。另一方面,做兼职工作为学生提供了一个宝贵的机会,可以将他们从书本中学到的东西运用到实践中,同时赚一些钱,这有助于减轻其家庭的经济负担。

根据以上的分析,这种趋势在未来相当长的一段时间还将继续下去。值得注意的是,虽然工作经验是有价值的,但是学习是大学生的主要任务。学生必须平衡学习和兼职工作。

2012年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语()试题

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI. Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it need to be. To the men and women who 1 in World War Ⅱand the people they liberated, the GI was the 2 man grown into hero, the poor farm kid torn away from his home, the guy who 3 all the burdens of battles, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the 4 of food and shelter, who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well paid, 5 an average guy up 6 the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies in centuries.

His name isn’t much.GI. is just a military abbreviation 7 Government Issue, and it was on all of the articles 8 to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9 it to the top. Joe Blow, Joe Palooka, Joe Magrac…a working class name. The United States has 10 had a president or vice- president or secretary of state Joe.

GI. Joe had a 11 career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character or a 12 of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Poly 13 portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the 14 side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were 15 or what towns were captured or liberated. His reports 16 the “Willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep.19 Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, GI. Joe was American soldiers, 20 the most important person in their lives.  

1. [A]performed[B]served[C]rebelled[D]betrayed

2. [A]actual[B]common[C]special[D] normal

3. [A]bore[B]caused[C]removed[D] loaded

4. [A]necessities[B]facilities[C]commodities[D] properties

5. [A]and[B]nor[C]but[D]hence

6. [A]for[B]into[C]from[D]against

7. [A]meaning[B]implying[C]symbolizing[D]claiming

8. [A]handed out[B]turned over[C]brought back[D]passed down

9. [A]pushed[B]got[C]made[D]managed

10. [A]ever[B]never[C]either[D]neither

11. [A]disguised[B]disturbed[C]disputed[D]distinguished

12. [A]company[B]collection [C]community[D]colony

13. [A]employed[B]appointed[C]interviewed[D]questioned

14. [A]ethical[B]military[C]political[D]human

15. [A] ruined[B] commuted[C] patrolled[D] gained

16. [A]paralleled[B] counteracted[C] duplicated[D] contradicted

17. [A] neglected[B] avoided[C]emphasized[D] admired

18. [A] stages[B]illusions[C] fragments[D] advances

19. [A] With [B] To[C] Among[D] Beyond

20. [A] on the contrary[B] by this means[C] from the outset[D] at that point

Section II  Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recently years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on this educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.

This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot complete on their own or that they cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

District administrators say that homework will still be a part of schooling; teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.

At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if should account for a significant portion of the grade. Meanwhile, this policy does nothing to ensure that the homework students receive is meaningful or appropriate to their age and the subject, or that teachers are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.

The homework rules should be put on hold while the shool board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.

21. It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework____.

[A] is receiving more criticism

[B]is no longer an educational ritual

[C]is not required for advanced courses

[D]is gaining more preferences

22. L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.

[A] tend to have moderate expectations for their education

[B]have asked for a different educational standard

[C]may have problems finishing their homework

[D]have voiced their complaints about homework

23. According to Paragraph 3’one problem with the policy is that it may____.

[A]discourage students from doing homework

[B]result in students’ indifference to their report cards

[C]undermine the authority of state tests

[D]restrict teachers’ power in education

24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4 a key question unanswered about homework is_____.

[A] it should be eliminated

[B] it counts much in schooling

[C] it places extra burdens on teachers

[D] it is important for grades

25. A suitable title for this text could be____.

[A] wrong Interpretations of an Educational Policy

[B] A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

[C] Thorny Questions about Homework

[D] A Faulty Approach to Homework

Text 2

Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.

Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century, in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s,when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.

I had not realized how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularized as a marketing trick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.

Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences-or invent them where they did not previously exist.

26.By saying “it is … the rainbow” (Line3, Para.1), the author means pink____.

[A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

[B]should not be associated with girls’ innocence

[C]cannot explain girls’ lack of imagination

[D]cannot influence girls’ lives and interests

27. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

[A] Colours are encoded in girls’ DNA.

[B] Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.

[C] Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders.

[D] White is preferred by babies.

28. The author suggests that our perception of children’s psychological development was much influenced by_____.

[A]the marketing of products for children

[B]the observation of children’s nature

[C]researches into children’s behaviour

[D]studies of childhood consumption

29. We may learn from paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to____.

[A]focus on infant wear and older kids’ clothes

[B]attach equal importance to different genders

[C]classify consumers into smaller groups

[D]create some common shoppers’ terms

30. It can be concluded that girls’ attraction to pink seems to be____.

[A]clearly explained by their inborn tendency

[B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers

[C]mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

[D]well interpreted by psychological experts

Text 3

In2010, a federal judge shook America’s biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were patented .But in March 2012 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle

On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Muriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman’s risk of breast cancer .The chief executive of Mytiad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over. Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriads A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature…than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds.”

Despite the appeals court’s decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

As the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are unlikely patented or in the public domain. Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy. Companies are eager to win patents for “connecting the dots,” explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO.

Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyer on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.

31. It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that the biotech companies would like_____.

[A] their executives to be active

[B] judges to rule out gene patenting

[C] genes to be patentable

[D] the BIO to issue a warning

32. Those who are against gene patents believe that_____.

[A] genetic tests are not reliable

[B] only man-made products are patentable

[C] patants on genes depend much on innovation

[D] courts should restrict access to genetic tests

33. According to Hans Sauer , companies are eager to win patents for_____.

[A] establishing disease correlations

[B] discovering gene interactions

[C] drawing pictures of genes

[D] identifying human DNA

34. By saying“Each meeting was packed”(Line 4,Para.6), the author means that______.

[A] the supreme court was authoritative

[B] the BIO was a powerful organisation

[C] gene patenting was a great concern

[D] lawyers were keen to attend conventions

35. Generally speaking, the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is______.

[A] critical

[B] supportive

[C] scornful

[D] objective

Text 4

The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.

No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways: they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S., lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them - especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economic at Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

In the Internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly will reshape it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

36. By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggests that the jobless try to ___.

[A] seek subsidies from the government

[B] explore reasons for the unemployment

[C] make profit from the troubled economy

[D] look on the bright side of the recession

37. According to Paragraph 2, the recession has made people___.

[A] realize the national dream

[B] struggle against each other

[C] challenge their prudence

[D] reconsider their lifestyle

38. Benjamin Friedman believes that economic recessions may___.

[A] impose a heavier burden on immigrants

[B] bring out more evils of human nature

[C] promote the advance of rights and freedoms

[D] ease conflicts between races and classes

39. The research of Till Von Wachter suggests that in the recession graduates from elite universities tend to___.

[A] lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

[B] catch up quickly with experienced employees

[C] see their life chances as dimmed as the others

[D] recover more quickly than the others

40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is _____.

[A] certain

[B] positive

[C] trivial

[D] destructive

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by reading information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Make your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

“University history, the history of what man has accomplished in the world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian Thomas Carlyle Well, not any more it is not.

Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favorite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from our forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration.

From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing Debins Illustribus-on Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, he championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders.

Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and author of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist’s person experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samuel Smile wrote self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explorers. “The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self -help, of patient purpose resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formation of truly noble and manly character, exhibit.” wrote Smile, “what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself.” His biographies of James Watt, Richard Arkwright and Josian Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.

This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals.

Not everyone was convinced by such bombast. “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles,” wrote Marx and Engel in The Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: “It is man, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle, As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”

This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.

 [A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes

41. Petrarch highlighted the public glory of the leading artists.

42.Niccolò Machiavelli [C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate.

43. Samuel Smiles [D]opened up new realms of understanding the masses and their record of struggle.

44. Thomas Carlyle [E] held that history should

45. Marx and Engels [F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders.

 [G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers.

Section III Translation

46. Directions:

Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in developed world. These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain, Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates.

Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate. A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40% of emigrants had more than a high-school education, compared with around 3.3% of all Indians over the age 25. This “brain drain” has long bothered policymakers in poor countries. They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make.

Section IV  Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day. Write an email to the customer service center to

1)make a complaint, and

2)demand a prompt solution.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use“Zhang Wei”instead.

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the following table. In your writing, you should

1) describe the table, and

2) give your comments.

You should write at least 150 words.

Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15point)

某公司员工工作满意度调查

满意度年龄组 满意 不清楚 不满意

≦4016.750.033.3

40—500.036.064.0

﹥5040.050.010.0

完形填空:

1.B 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.C

6.B 7.C 8.A 9.D 10.B

11.D 12.B 13.C 14.D 15.B

16.A 17.C 18.B 19.B 20.D

TEXT1

21. A 22.C 23.A 24.B 25.D

TEXT2

26.A 27.B 28.A 29.C 30.C

TEXT3

31.C 32.B 33.A 34.D 35.D

TEXT4

36.D 37.D 38.B 39.D 40.A

新题型:

41-45AFGCE

小作文范文:

Dear Sir or Madame,

As one of the regular customers of your online store, I am writing this letter to express my complaint against the flaws in your product—an electronic dictionary I bought in your shop the other day.

The dictionary is supposed to be a favorable tool for my study. Unfortunately, I found that there are several problems. To begin with, when I opened it, I detected that the appearance of it had been scratched. Secondly, I did not find the battery promised in the advertisement posted on the homepage of your shop, which makes me feel that you have not kept your promise. What is worse, some of the keys on the keyboard do not work.

I strongly request that a satisfactory explanation be given and effective measures should be taken to improve your service and the quality of your products. You can either send a new one to me or refund me my money in full.

I am looking forward to your reply at your earliest convenience.

Sincerely yours,

Zhang Wei

2010全国硕士研究生入学统一考试(英语二)试题

Section I USE of  English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

The outbreak of swine flu that was first deteccted in Mexico was declared a global epidemic on june 11,2009. It is the first wotldwide cpidemic__1__by the World Health Organization in41years.

The heightened alert __2__an emergency meeting with flu experts in Geneva that assembled after a sharp pise in cases in Australia.and rising __3__in Britain ,japan,Chile and elsewhere.

Bur the epiemic is “__4__”in severity. According to Margaret Chan. The organization’s director general,__5__the overwhelming majorty of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and full recovery. Often in the__6__of any medical treatment.

The ourbreak came to gobal__7__in lafe April2009.when Mexican authorities noted an unusually latge number of hospitalizations and deaths__8__ healthy adults. As much ofMexico City Shut down at the height of a panic,cases began to__9__in New York City.the southwestem United States and atound the world.

In the United States, new cases seemed to fade__10__warmer weather arrived.But in late September 2009,officials reported there was__11__flu activity in almost every state and that virtually all the__12__tested are the new swine flu. Also known as(A)H1N1,not seasonal flu.In the U.S.,It has__13__more than one million people,and caused mone than 600 deaths and more than 6,000 hospitalizations.

Federal health officials ___14___ Tamiflu for children from the national stockpile and began __15__ orders from the atates for the new swine flu vaccine.The new vaccine,which is different from the annual flu vaccine,is__16__ ahead of expectations.More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009,though most of those __17__doses were of the FluMist nasal spray type,which is not __18__ for pregnant women,people over 50 or those with breathing difficulties,heart disease or several other__19__.But it was still possible to vaccinate people in other high-risk groups;health care workers,people __20__infants and healthy young people.

1.AcriticizedBappointedCcommentedDdesignated

2.AproceededBactivatedCfollowedDprompted

3.Adigits Bnumbers Camounts Dsums

4.AModeratre Bnormal Cunusual Dextreme

5.AWith Bin Cfrom Dby

6.AProgress Babsence Cpresence Dfavor

7.AReality Bphenomenon Ccincept Dnotice

8.AOver Bfor Camong Dto

9.Astay up    Bcrop up   Cfill up  Dcover up

10.Aas  Bif Cunless Duntil

11.Aexcessive Benormous Csignificant Dmagnificent

12.Acategories Bexamples Cpatterns Dsamples

13.Aimparted  Bimmersed Cinjected Dinfected

14.Areleased Brelayed CrelievedDremained

15.Aplacing Bdelivering Ctaking Dgiving

16.Afeasible Bavailable Creliable Dapplicable

17.Aprevalent Bprincipal Cinnovative Dinitial

18.Apresented Brestricted Crecommended Dintroduced

19.Aproblems Bissues Cagonies Dsufferings

20.Ainvolved in Bcaring for   Cconcerned withDwarding off

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”, at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008 (see picture). All but two pieces sold, fetching more than 70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last hurrah. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.

The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising vertiginously since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm-double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries.

In the weeks and months that followed Mr Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector-for Chinese contemporary art-they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them.

The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the second world war. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more volatile. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.”

What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds-death, debt and divorce-still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.

21.In the first paragraph,Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory”because ____.

A.the art market hadwitnessed a succession of victoryies

B.the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids

C.Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces

D.it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis

22.By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2,Para.3),the author suggests that_____ .

A . collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions

B .people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries

C.art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent

D .works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying

23.Which of the following statements is NOT ture?

A .Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007to 2008.

B.The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum.

C.The market generally went downward in various ways.

D.Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come.

24.The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are ____

A.auction houses ' favorites

B.contemporary trends

C.factors promoting artwork circulation

D.styles representing impressionists

25.The most appropriate title for this text could be ___

A.Fluctuation of Art Prices

B.Up-to-date Art Auctions

C.Art Market in Decline

D.Shifted Interest in Arts

Text2

I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room -- a women's group that had invited men to join them. Throughout the evening one man had been particularly talkative frequently offering ideas and anecdotes while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch. Toward the end of the evening I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them. This man quickly concurred. He gestured toward his wife and said 'She's the talker in our family.' The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt. 'It's true' he explained. 'When I come home from work I have nothing to say. If she didn't keep the conversation going we'd spend the whole evening in silence.'

This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage.

The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late '70s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book 'Divorce Talk' that most of the women she interviewed -- but only a few of the men -- gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year -- a virtual epidemic of failed conversation.

In my own research complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning cooking social arrangements and errands. Instead they focused on communication: 'He doesn't listen to me' 'He doesn't talk to me.' I found as Hacker observed years before that most wives want their husbands to be first and foremost conversational partners but few husbands share this expectation of their wives.

In short the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face while a woman glares at the back of it wanting to talk.

26.What is most wives' main expectation of their husbands?

A.Talking to them.

B.Trusting them.

C.Supporting their careers.

D. Shsring housework.

27.Judging from the context ,the phrase “wreaking havoc”(Line 3,Para.2)most probably means ___ .

A generating motivation.

B.exerting influence

C.causing damage

Dcreating pressure

28.All of the following are true EXCEPT_______

A.men tend to talk more in public tan women

B.nearly 50percent of recent divorces are caused by failed conversation

C.women attach much importance to communication between couples

Da female tends to be more talkative at home than her spouse

29.Which of the following can best summarize the mian idea of this text ?

A.The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists .

B.Marriage break_up stems from sex inequalities.

C.Husband and wofe have different expectations from their marriage.

D.Conversational patterns between man and wife are different.

30.In the following part immediately after this text,the author will most probably focus

on ______

A.a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk

B.a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon

C.other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S.

D a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker

Txet3

over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors - habits - among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks, apply lotions and wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues.

“There are fundamental public health problems, like hand washing with soap, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” Dr. Curtis said. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.”

The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to - Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever - had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines.

If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day - chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, antiperspirants, colognes, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins - are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of canny advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands.

A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs,and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals,slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup.

“Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to making new products commercially viable.”

Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through relentless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.

31.According to Dr.Curtis,habits like hand washing with soap________.

[A] should be further cultivated

[B] should be changed gradually

[C] are deepiy rooted in history

[D] are basically private concerns

32.Bottled water,chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to____

[A] reveal their impact on people’habits

[B] show the urgent need of daily necessities

[C]indicate their effect on people’buying power

[D]manifest the significant role of good habits

33.which of the following does NOT belong to products that help create people’s habits?

[A]Tide

[B]Crest

[C]Colgate

[D]Unilver

34.From the text wekonw that some of consumer’s habits are developed due to _____

[A]perfected art of products

[B]automatic behavior creation

[C]commercial promotions

[D]scientific experiments

35.the author’sattitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is____

[A]indifferent

[B]negative

[C]positive

[D]biased

Text4

Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to serve on a jury on account of race, religion, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them.

But as recently as in 1986, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of strauder v. West Virginia,the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws.

The system also failed to regularly include women on juries until the mid-20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898,it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personlly asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s.

In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury.This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors.

36.From the principles of theUS jury system,welearn that ______

[A]both litcrate and illiterate people can serve on juries

[B]defendants are immune from trial by their peers

[C]no age limit should be imposed for jury service

[D]judgment should consider the opinion of the public

37.The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed_____

[A]the inadcquavy of antidiscrimination laws

[B]the prevalent discrimination against certain races

[C]the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures

38.Even in the 1960s,women were seldom on the jury list in some states because_____

[A]they were automatically banned by state laws

[B]they fell far short of the required qualifications

[C]they were supposed to perform domestic duties

[D]they tended to evade public engagement

39.After the Jury Selection and Service Act was passed.___

[A]sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished

[B]educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors

[C]jurors at the state level ought to be representative of the entire community

[D]states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system

40.in discussing the US jury system,the text centers on_______

[A]its nature and problems

[B]its characteristics and tradition

[C]its problems and their solutions

[D]its tradition and development

Part B

Directions

Read the following text and decide whether each of the statements is true or false. Choose T if the statement is true or F it the statement is not true. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

Copying Birds May Save Aircraft Fuel

Both Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft. The 787 and 350 respectively . Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference . But a group of researchers at Stanford University , led by Ilan Kroo , has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use and it would not require them to buy new aircraft.

The answer, says Dr Kroo , lies with birds . Since 1914, scientists have known that birds flying in formation-a V-shape-expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips . a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves . Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California ,has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%.

When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different . Dr Kroo and his team modeled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and I as Vegas were to assemble over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation occasionally change places so all could have a turn in the most favourable positions , and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (coupled with a reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter.

There are , of course , knots to be worked out . One consideration is safety , or at least the perception of it . Would passengers feel comfortable travelling in companion? Dr Kroo points out that the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles , and would not be in the intimate groupings favoured by display teams like the Red Arrows , A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organisation has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines.

It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flight.

As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the on case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the programme has yet to begin . There are reports that some military aircraft flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the Second World War ,but Dr Lissaman says they are unsubstantiated. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,”he adds. So he should know.

41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft.

42. The upwash experience may save propelling energy as well as reducing resistance.

43. Formation flight is more comfortable because passengers can not see the other plans.

44. The role that weather plays in formation flight has not yet been clearly defined.

45. It has been documented that during World War Ⅱ, America’s armed forces once tried formation flight to save fuel.

Section Ⅲ Translation

46.Directions:

In this section there is a text in English .Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15points)

“Suatainability” has become apopular word these days, but to Ted Ning, the concept will always have personal meaning. Having endured apainful period of unsustainability in his own life made itclear to him that sustainability-oriented values must be expressed though everyday action and choice.

Ning recalls spending aconfusing year in the late 1990s selling insurance. He’d been though the dot-com boom and burst and,desperate for ajob,signed on with a Boulder agency.

It didin’t go well. “It was a really had move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictably, into a lack of sales. “I was miserable, I had so much anxiety that I would wake up in the middle of the night and stare at the ceiling. I had no money and needed the job. Everyone said, ‘Just wait, you’ll trun the corner, give it some time.’”

Section Ⅳ Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

You have just come back from the U.S. as a member of a Sino-American cultural exchange program. Write a letter to your American colleague to

1) Express your thanks for his/her warm reception;

2) Welcome him/her to visit China in due course.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead.

Do not write your address. (10 points)

Part B

48. Directions:

In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1) Interpret the chart and

2) Give your comments.

You should write at least 150 words.

Write your essay on on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

标准答案

section I Use of English10points

1.D  2.C  3.B  4.A  5.A

6.B  7.D  8.C  9.B  10.A

11.C  12.D  13.D  14.A  15.C

16.B  17.D  18.C  19.A  20.B

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension

partA

21.D 22.A 23.B 24.C 25.C

26.A 27.C 28.B 29.D 30.B

31.A 32.A 33.D 34.C 35.B

36.D 37.A 38.C 39.B 40.D

Part B

41.F 42.T 43.F 44.T 45.F

Section Ⅲ Translation

最近,承受力成了一个流行词,但对Ted Ning来说,他对其含义有自己亲身的体会。在经历了一段无法承受的痛苦生活后,他清楚的认识到,旨在提高承受力的价值观只有通过每日的行为和抉择才能得到体现。

Ning回忆起九十年代后期销售保险那困惑的一年。在经历了网络泡沫的膨胀和破灭后,他急需找到一份工作,因此就与Boulder公司签了约。

但情况并不顺利。这的确是糟糕的一步,因为它激不起我的工作热情,”Ning说。不出所料,工作上的进退维谷造成他销售业绩不佳。我很痛苦,愁肠百结,常常在半夜惊醒,望着天花板发愣。我身无分文,需要这份工作。大家都说,等等看,过一段时间情况会好转的。’”

Section Ⅳ Writing

Part A

Dear xxx,

I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to you for your kindness to receive me when I participated in an exchange program in USA.

Your generous help made it possible that I had a very pleasant stay and a chance to know American cultures better. Besides, I think it is an honor for me to make friends with you and I will cherish the goodwill you showed to me wherever I go. I do hope that you will visit China one day, so that I could have the opportunity to repay your kindness and refresh our friendship.

I feel obliged to thank you again.

Sincerely yours,

Zhang Wei

Part B

In this chart, we can see the mobile phone subscriptions in developed countries have a steady and slight increase from 1990 to 2007 and then remain constant in 2008. Meanwhile the mobile phone subscriptions in developing countries have witnessed a slow increase from 1990 to 2004 and then a great surge from 2004 to 20007: the biggest surge happens from 2005 to 2006.

This chart reflects different developing modes of mobile phone industry in developed and developing countries. The developed countries have a limited number of populations, most of whom are well-educated. Therefore, the spreading of the mobile phone service is efficient and soon the market is saturated. Also at the beginning the developed countries have more people who can afford this service. The developing countries have a large population who keeps a large demand for mobile service. As the mobile phone service becomes cheaper and cheaper, the increasing customers subscribe to benefit from this service.

As discussed above, it is not surprising to see this change. In my opinion, this trend that the number of mobile-phone subscriptions is increasingly increasing will continue for a while in the future.


[撰稿:danieltamayo.com15 / 责任编辑:danieltamayo.com15]

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